2009年4月20日星期一

傲慢不知恩

Sayadaw U Pandita (班迪達尊者), In This Very Life, The Liberation Teachings of the Buddha講到魔王(Mara)的十大魔軍,其中一處是傲慢不知恩。中國人有句說話「得人恩果千年記」,但在現今的社會還有多少人懂得謙虛與感恩是的美德?

第一魔軍:愛欲 第六魔軍:怖畏
第二魔軍:不滿 第七魔軍:疑惑
第三魔軍:飢渴 第八魔軍:傲慢不知恩
第四魔軍:渴愛 第九魔軍:恭敬、利益、名譽與邪行得名聲
第五魔軍:昏沈睡眠 第十魔軍:稱揚自己,貶抑他人

我慢實際上是種可怕的心態,它會摧毀感激,讓人很難承認自己欠人任何恩惠,不但忘記他人過去對自己所做的善行,還輕視他們,詆毀他們的功德。不僅如此,還會主動隱瞞他人的美德,讓他們不受尊敬。這種對待恩人的態度是我慢的第二種型態,第一種則是剛硬。

在我們的生命之中有許多恩人,特別是在孩提與年少時代,例如,雙親在我們無助時,給我們愛、教育與其他生活所需;老師教導我們知識;在我們陷入麻煩時,朋友給予幫助。記得那些曾幫助我們的人的恩情,會覺得謙虛與感恩,且會希望有機會可以回報。正是這個平和的狀態,能打敗第八魔軍。

然而,不承認過去曾受他人恩惠的人十分常見。也許某位在家人發現自己有困難,而有個慈悲的朋友給予幫助,幸虧獲得此幫助,那人設法改善他的情況,但他後來卻絲毫不表示感謝,也許甚至反過來對恩人說些刺耳的話:「你曾經為我做過甚什麼嗎?」這種舉止在這世界上十分常見。

香光莊嚴七十四期/92年6月20日

Conceit is really a fearsome mental state. It destroys gratitude, making it difficult to acknowledge that one owes any kind of debt to another person. Forgetting the good deeds others have done for us in the past, one belittles them and denigrates their virtues. Not only that, but one also actively conceals the virtues of others so that no one will hold them in esteem. This attitude toward one's benefactors is the second aspect of conceit, rigidity being the first.

All of us have had benefactors in our lives, especially in childhood and younger days. Our parents, for example, gave us love, education and the necessities of life at a time when we were helpless. Our teachers gave us knowledge. Friends helped us when we got into trouble. Remembering our debts to those who have helped us, we feel humble and grateful, and we hope for a chance to help them in turn. It is precisely this gentle state that defeats Mara's Eighth Army.

Yet it is very common to find people who don't recognize the good that has been done for them in the past. Perhaps a lay person finds himself or herself in trouble, and a compassionate friend offers help. Thanks to this help, the person manages to improve his or her circumstances. Later, however, he or she may demonstrate no gratitude at all, may even turn and speak harshly to the erstwhile benefactor. "What have you ever done for me?" Such behavior is far from unknown in this world.

This Very Life, The Liberation Teachings of the Buddha

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