2010年8月11日星期三

Avoid what which should be shunned (II)

Avoid what which should be shunned

Applying oneself to that which should be avoided, not applying oneself to that which should be pursued, and giving up the quest, one who goes after pleasure envies them who exert themselves.

Give up both what is dear and not dear

Consort not with those that are dear, never with those that are not dear; not seeing those that are dear and seeing those that are not dear, are both painful.

Hold nothing dear

Hence hold nothing dear, for separation from those that are dear is bad; bonds do not exist or those to whom naught is dear or not dear.

Grief springs from what is dear

From endearment springs grief, from endearment springs fear; for him who is wholly free from endearment there is no grief, much less fear.

Grief springs from affection

From affection springs grief, from affection springs fear; for him who is wholly free from affection there is no grief, much less fear.

Ven. Nàrada, Dhammapada

Ven. Kakkapalliye Anuruddha Thera解釋了以上的偈誦。

愛著(piya)和厭惡以四種形式出現。

  • 愛著生起愛著:你有一位朋友,其他人喜歡你的朋友,你因而喜歡他們。
  • 愛著生起厭惡:你有一位朋友,其他人不喜歡你的朋友,你因而不喜歡他們。
  • 厭惡生起愛著:你有一位敵人,其他人不喜歡他,你因而喜歡他們。
  • 厭惡生起厭惡:你有一位敵人,其他人喜歡他,你因而不喜歡他們。

渴愛(tanhā)和無明(avijjā)是兩個重要的心理因素,使人的生命持續,不斷輪迴。

渴愛可分為三類:

  • 欲愛 (kāma-taṇhā):追求感官欲樂,滿足感官的欲望
  • 有愛 (bhava-taṇhā)追求再生和生命的延續
  • 無有愛 (vibhava-taṇhā):追求摧毀生命,又指執取涅槃

無明不是沒有知識,而是不明白真理。無明等同邪見,與正見 (sammā-diṭṭhi) 相對正見是明白四聖諦。

四聖諦簡單來說是苦和苦的止息。無常是苦,當人認識到無常的道理,就能明白無我。無常、苦和無我是互相關連的。

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