2010年9月10日星期五

There is none who is blameless in this world (II)

There is none who is blameless in this world

This, O Atula, is an old saying; it is not one of today only: they blame those who sit silent, they blame those who speak too much. Those speaking little too they blame. There is no one who is not blamed in this world.

There is none who is wholly blamed or praised

There never was, there never will be, nor does there exist now, a person who is wholly blamed or wholly praised.

The blameless are praised

Examining day by day, the wise praise him who is of flawless life, intelligent, endowed with knowledge and virtue.

Who dare blame the pure?

Who deigns to blame him who is like a piece of refined gold? Even the gods praise him; by Brahma too he is praised.

Ven. Nàrada, Dhammapada

這四首偈誦與佛教徒阿拘拉 (Atula) 有關。

有一日,阿拘拉想聽比丘說法,於是前往找離婆多 (Revata) 。離婆多是位修習靜默的比丘,很少與人談話。阿拘拉到來時,離婆多沒有向他說話,只靜靜地坐著。阿拘拉失望地離開,向人指責離婆多是一位不中用的比丘,只懂得閉上眼睛不發一言。

阿拘拉決定找一位有名的比丘,認為他定會向自己說法。阿拘拉前往見佛陀的首座弟子舍利弗。在僧團內,舍利弗的地位僅次於佛陀,以智慧見稱,精於阿毗達磨 (Abhidhamma),佛陀也常稱讚舍利弗。阿毗達磨是三藏 (Tipiṭaka) 之一,有系統地闡釋佛法。阿拘拉向舍利弗說出到來的原因,舍利弗於是向他講解阿毗達磨。阿毗達磨非常奧妙,阿拘拉無法明白。阿拘拉聽完後也很失望,四處向人批評舍利弗說得太冗長。

阿拘拉接著找阿難陀 (Ananda),相信他會說些適合的佛法給自己聽。阿難陀心想阿拘拉不喜歡長的法義,也不喜歡短的法義,於是決定說一些適量的。阿拘拉明白阿難陀的說法,但心想沒有得到任何東西,阿難陀說的也是沒有用的東西。

最後,阿拘拉前往見佛陀,說出了對三位比丘的感覺。佛陀聽到後說了以上的偈誦。

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