2011年12月6日星期二

The Buddhist Precepts IV (佛教戒律 IV)

Shravasti Dhammika, The Buddhist Precepts IV

達爾卡法師 著   伍煥炤 譯 :〈佛教戒律 IV〉

The last of the eight Precepts and the ninth of the ten Precepts say that one should abstain from using high (ucca) or large (maha) seats and couches. Some people are perplexed by this rule and wonder what it has to do with morality or the training of the mind. Of course it has nothing to do with morality. Only the first five Precepts pertain to moral behaviour and are kammically significant. The other Precepts, including the one about seats and couches, are ways of behaving that can assist in calming the mind and shaping character. In ancient India, and even in the modern world, sitting on an elevated or grand chair was a sign of power and status. Monarchs, judges, lecturers, managing directors, the speaker of parliament, etc, all have special high seats. To practice the eighth Precept is to relinquish, not display or take advantage of one's social status, at least for a day. Practising the eighth Precept is about modesty, diminishing the ego and refraining from putting oneself on a pedestal.

八戒的最後一條和十戒的第九條戒律說人應避免使用高 (ucca) 和大 (maha) 的椅和床。一些人對這戒律感到疑惑,想知這它與道德和心的培育有甚麼關係。當然它與道德無關。只有五戒涉及道德行為和在業力方面需要注意,其他戒律包括有關椅和床的,都是幫助使心止息和塑造品格的方法。在古印度,甚至現今世界,坐在高和華麗的椅子是權力和地位的象徵。國王、法官、講演者、總經理和國會讓長等全部有高的座椅。踐行八戒是至少一日放棄、不展示和利用個人的社會地位。踐行八戒涉及謙遜,削弱自我和避免把自己抬得高高在上。

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The picture shows a baby breaking the eighth Precept
這幅圖顯示一個違反了第八條戒律的嬰兒

2011年11月30日星期三

The Buddhist Precepts III (〈佛教戒律 III〉)

Shravasti Dhammika, The Buddhist Precepts III

達爾卡法師 著   伍煥炤 譯 :〈佛教戒律 III〉

The sixth of the eight Precepts and ten Precepts is Vikala bhojana vermani sikkhapadam samadhiami, I take the precept not to eat at the wrong time. 'Wrong time' (vikala) has long been interpreted to mean after noon or midday, although I know of no place in the suttas where this is specifically stated. The overall purpose of this rule is clear enough – to encourage moderation in eating (Sn.707) and to keep drowsiness due to a full stomach at bay. But the part about not eating after midday is less clear. The origin story in the Vinaya explaining this rule is unconvincing and obviously a later invention. According to this story, a monk was standing at someone's door late at night. As the woman of the house approached the door a sudden flash of lightening illuminated him, frightening the woman half to death, and to prevent this from happening again the Buddha instituted the rule. The only justification the Buddha gives for this rule is that it is good for the health and he does not mention what the 'wrong time' is other than to say the 'evening' or 'night' (ratti). He said, 'I do not eat in the evening and thus I am free from illness and affliction and enjoy health, strength and ease' (M.I, 473). But I can see no reason why eating only in the morning should be any more or less healthy than eating only in the afternoon.

八戒中的第六戒是Vikala bhojana vermani sikkhapadam samadhiami,我遵守戒律不會在不適當的時間進食。雖然我在佛經中找不到特別提及「非時」(vikala) 的地方,但它長久以來都解作過了正午或中午。這條戒律整體的目的是十分清晰的 — 鼓勵節制飲食 (Sn.707) 和避免因滿腹而昏睡。有關午後不進食的部份則不太清晰,《律藏》中解這條戒律來歷的故事並不具說服力,顯然是後來加上的。根據這個故事,一位比丘在晚上站在一家人的門前,一位該戶家庭的女人走近門前,突然而來的閃電照出了他的樣貌,把她嚇得半死。為避免同樣的事情再發生,佛陀制訂了這條戒律。佛陀制訂這戒律的唯一理據是它有益健康,但他沒有提到「非時」是甚麼,只說了「傍晚」或「晚上」(ratti)。他說:「我不在傍晚步進食,因此我會遠離疾病和痛苦,得到健康、力量和安樂」(M.I, 473)。但我看不到只在早上進食是比只在下午進食不健康或更健康。

I suspect that the rule has its origins in two things. That eating before noon was already a well-established convention amongst wandering ascetics and the Buddha simply asked his monks and nuns to follow this convention. And the reason why this convention evolved in the first place was probably because, then as now, Indian peasant women cooked all the day's food early in the morning and the main meal of the day was in the morning. In other words, the most convenient time to go for alms gathering (pindapata) was in the morning. Noon was probably used as the cut-off point for eating because it could be known exactly. It's also pretty certain that monks and nuns only eat one meal a day because, not doing hard physical labour, they did not need that much food. So it is important to understand that noon is not some magical time, after which consuming food becomes a serious moral failing. It is just a convenient, and at that time a practical, way of dividing the day.clip_image001

我懷疑這條戒律是源自兩樣事情。在中午前進食已經是遊方苦行者廣泛接受的習俗,佛陀只是吩咐他的比丘和比丘尼遵從。這習俗最初出現的原因可能是這樣的。印度的農婦一貫都是一早烹煮好整日的食物,而正餐就在早上。換句話說,早上是最適合托缽的時間。中午可能是進食的分界點,因為這是很清楚的。相當肯定的是比丘和比丘尼每日只吃一餐,由於他們不需從事勞動工作,因此不需進食大量的食物。所以重要的是弄清楚中午不是甚麼神秘的時間,在中午過後進食會是嚴重的道德敗壞。這只是個方便,以及在當時可行劃分時間的方法。

2011年11月29日星期二

The Buddhist Precepts II (〈佛教戒律 II〉)

Shravasti Dhammika, The Buddhist Precepts II

達爾卡法師 著   伍煥炤 譯 :〈佛教戒律 II〉

In addition to the five Precepts, serious Buddhists will try to practise the eight Precepts (attha sila), at least on the half and full moon days of every month. The eight Precepts are the same as the five except that the third is replaced by abstinence from all sexual behavior, and the additional three Precepts are: (6) not to eat after midday (7), to abstain from dancing, singing, playing or listening to music, personal adornment and makeup, and (8) not to use high seats and couches. Novice monks and nuns are expected to practise the ten Precepts (dasa sila) in preparation for their monastic life. These ten are: (1) not to harm living beings, (2) not to steal, (3) to abstain from sexual behaviour, (4) not to lie, (5) not to take alcohol or intoxicating drugs, (6) not to eat after midday, (7) to abstain from dancing, singing and musical entertainment, (8) to abstain from adornment and makeup, (9) not to use high seats and couches, and (10) not to use gold and silver, i.e. money.

五戒之外,認真的佛教徒還會嘗試踐行八戒 (attha sila),至少在半月和滿月的日子。八戒與五戒相同,只是第三戒改為徹底禁慾,另加上三樣戒律:(6) 過午不食、(7) 不觀聽歌舞、不香油塗身、不着香薰衣 (8) 不坐臥高廣大床。沙彌或沙彌尼在準備過寺院生活時應踐行十戒 (dasa sila),包括 (1) 不殺生、(2) 不偷盜、(3) 不邪淫、(4) 不妄語、(5) 不飲酒或服用毒品、(6) 過午不食、(7) 不觀聽歌舞、(8) 不香油塗身、不着香薰衣、(9) 不坐臥高廣大床和 (10) 不用金銀財寶,例如金錢。

It will be noticed that while the five Precepts pertain to moral behaviour, the last three of the eight Precepts and the last five of the ten Precepts, are not about morality, but about behaviour that simplifies and uncomplicated one's life so one can focus fully on the spiritual. The failure to understand this (somewhat common in traditional Buddhist countries) can cause all sorts of confusion. Over the next few days I will have a look at these 'lifestyle simplification' Precepts.

應注意的是五戒涉及道德行為,而八戒的最後三樣戒律和十戒的最後五樣戒律並不是關於道德,而是有關簡化個人的生活,從而使人能專注在精神的層面。未能明白這點的話 (在傳統佛教國家頻為普遍) 會造成各樣的混亂。在往後的幾日,我會研究一下這些「簡化生活方式」的戒律。

2011年11月28日星期一

The Buddhist Precepts I (〈佛教戒律 I〉)

Shravasti Dhammika, The Buddhist Precepts I

達爾卡法師 著   伍煥炤 譯 :〈佛教戒律 I〉

A precept (sikkhapada) is a self-imposed rule or discipline. The moral rules that all Buddhists commit themselves to and try to live by are called the five Precepts (panca sila). They are (1) not to harm living beings, (2) not to steal, (3) not to engage in wrong sexual behaviour, (4) not to lie and (5) not to take alcohol or other intoxicating drugs. In following these Precepts one gradually develops a respect for the life of others, for their property, their dignity, their right to know the truth and a respect for the clarity of one's own mind. The Buddha called adhering to these Precepts a consideration to others which ‘creates love and respect and which is conducive to helpfulness, non-dispute, harmony and unity’ (A.III, 287; M.I.322). I think this passage needs to be more well-known so I give it in Pali as well…

戒律 (sikkhapada) 是自我願意接受的規則或紀律,所有佛教徒承諾遵從和以此作為人之道的道德規範德稱為五戒 (panca sila),包括 (1) 不殺生、(2) 不偷盜、(3) 不邪淫、(4) 不妄語和 (5) 不飲酒或服用毒品。當人遵從這些戒律,人便會漸漸培養尊重別人生命、財產、尊嚴知道事實真相的權利,並着重個人頭腦的清晰。佛陀指堅持這些戒律是對別人的關懷,「能產生愛與尊重,有利於培育樂於助人、不爭、和諧與團結」(A.III, 287; M.I, 322)。我想這一段句子應讓更多人知道,因此,我會同時寫出它的巴利文:

piyakarana, garukarana, sangahaya, avivadaya, samaggiya, ekibhavaya, samvattanti.

The Buddha saw adherence to the Precepts as a gift (danani) which would benefit both the giver and the receiver. 'When a noble disciple practices the five Precepts he gives the gift of freedom from fear, from hatred and from ill-will to limitless beings. And in giving this gift he thereby partakes in a freedom from fear, from hatred and from ill-will which is limitless' (condensed, A.IV, 246). On another occasion, the Buddha called virtue 'freedom-giving' and 'conducive to concentration' (A.III,132) and he mentioned that one of the most important benefits of practicing the Precepts is that one experiences ‘the happiness of being blameless’ (anavajja sukha, D.I,70). In other words, Buddhists practices the five Precepts because they care about their own welfare and the welfare and happiness of others too.

佛陀認為遵守五戒是一種「布施」(danani),有益於贈予者和受領人。「當聖弟子踐行五戒,他就是向無限的眾生施予無懼、無瞋恚和無惡意的布施」(扼要:A.IV, 246)。在另一個場合,佛陀稱德行為「解脫束縛」和「有益於禪定」(A.III, 132),他提到踐行五戒其中一樣最重要的益處是讓人感到「戒除惡業的快樂」(anavajja sukha, D.I, 70)。換言之,佛教徒踐行五戒是因為他們關心自己福祉,以及別人的福祉和幸福。

Over the next week I am going to have comment on all the Five, Eight and Ten Precepts.

在往後的星期,我會討論一下五戒、八戒和十戒。

2011年11月23日星期三

一點憐憫

早上候車期間,聽到兩名男子談論一位女藝人被輕薄的事件,其中一人品評該女藝人的容貌,竟說出她沒有化妝時的樣貌很難看。我沒有細心留意這件新聞,也不太清楚該女藝人的相貌,不知道他們的評論是否合理。但我心想,她是事件中的受害人,我們應對她給予同情才對,怎可說出這樣的說話!若果事情發生在你的親人或朋友身上,你又會如何面對?佛陀教人要同情別人,看到別人的不幸遭遇要持有憐憫之心。

2011年11月22日星期二

找尋出版

早前完成翻譯了Bhante Shravasti Dhammika的To eat or not to eat meat: a Buddhist reflection,一直都在找出版社出版,但因種種的原因未能成事。但沒有因此而洩氣和放棄,繼續找尋出版社。最近又把稿件送交一間台灣的佛教出版社,每個機會也不能放棄,希望法師的中文釋文終有印刷成書的一日。

李叔同:《送别歌》

長亭外

古道邊

芳草碧連天

晚風拂柳笛聲殘

夕陽山外山

天之涯

地之角

知交半零落

一杯濁酒盡餘歡

今宵別夢寒

2011年11月16日星期三

掉了牙

早上遇到隔鄰的小朋友,人又高大了一點,閒談時發現他甩掉了幾顆門牙。

「你掉了多少牙?」

「五顆。」

「有沒有早晚刷牙?」

「當然有。」

「很快就會長出新牙,不用怕。」

「新牙都是白色的?」

「是的。如果你將來不注重口腔清潔,新牙也會甩掉的。」

「哈哈哈。」

2011年11月11日星期五

Royal Mail

Royal Mail早前從Wisdom Books購買了Ajahn Brahm的The Art of Disappearing、Sayādaw U Pandita的In This Very Life和Anthony KennedyWarder 的Indian Buddhism,收到時嚇了一跳,三本書居然放在一個印有Royal Mail的大袋內。現正思索如何把這個袋循環再用,找改造成環保袋也不錯。

Ajahn Vajiro & Ajahn Kusalo 佛法講座

十一月十一(星期五)
講座:為意料不到作預備
主講:阿姜瓦基羅 (Ajahn Vajiro)

十一月十二日(星期六)
講座:生活就是禪修
主講:阿姜庫沙羅 (Ajahn Kusalo)

十一月十三日(星期日)
禪修坊(需報名)
主講:阿姜庫沙羅

十一月十四日(星期一)
十一月十六日(星期三)
講座:在家修行系列
主講:阿姜庫沙羅

講座(無需報名)
時間:晚上七至九時
地點:九龍尖沙咀金巴利道16號香檳大廈2B室香港南傳禪修學會

英語主講
粵語翻譯

2011年9月26日星期一

Footprints In The Dust II (塵土上的足跡)

Shravasti Dhammika, Footprints In The Dust II

達爾卡法師 著 伍煥炤 譯 :〈塵土上的足跡〉II

1. The Buddha was not, as is commonly supposed, primarily a forest dweller. Of the four monasteries he founded and now identified by archaeologists - Ghositarama, Jivakarama, Jetavana and Veluvana - the first is actually inside the walls of the city while the other three are within easy walking distance of their respective cities. When staying in these places the Buddha’s accommodation would have been reasonably comfortable but when he was on the road the situation was very different and he would have to sleep in or take shelter in whatever was available. We read of him sleeping in a potter’s shed on grass spread on the floor (M.I:502). On another occasion, he arrived in Kapilavatthu and finding no proper lodgings, spent the night in Bharandu’s hermitage sleeping on a mat on the ground (A.I:277). Often he must have simply slept in one of the many mango groves that to this day are still to be seen near most north Indian villages. Finding him out in the open one winter’s night Hattaka asked the Buddha if he was happy. He replied; ‘Yes my lad, I live happily. Of those who live happily in the world I am one’. Hattaka expressed surprise at this, pointing out that it was the dark half of the month, the time of frost, that the ground was trampled hard by the hoofs of the cattle, the carpet of leaves thin, the wind cold and that the Buddha’s robe appeared to be thin. The Buddha reaffirmed that he was nonetheless happy (A.I:136).

1. 與普遍的想法不同,佛陀並不是一個主要以森林為居所的人。現今四所由考古學家確認的寺院 — 瞿師羅園 (Ghositarama)、耆婆園 (Jivakarama)、祇園精舍 (Jetavana) 和竹林精舍 (Veluvana) — 第一所其實位於城內,而其餘三所則離城市步行不遠之處。當逗留在這些地方時,佛陀的起居是頗為舒適的,但當他展開行程時,情況就十分不同,他要四處找尋任何可供留宿的地方。我們知道他住在製陶工人的棚屋,睡在鋪上草的地上 (M. I: 502)。另一次,他到了迦毗羅衛國 (Kapilavatthu),發覺找不到適當的住處,於是在巴哈蘭度的草庵 (Bharandu) 內度宿,睡在地蓆上 (A. I: 277)。很多時他乾脆睡在一個芒果園。時至今日,在大多數印度北部的村落附近仍可找到這些芒果園。哈達卡 (Hattaka) 看到佛陀在冬天時睡在曠野,便問他是否快樂?他回答:「是的年青人,我生活得很快樂。在世上能活得快樂的人之中,我是其中的一位。」哈達卡對此感到驚訝,指出這是黑暗的日子、正值結霜、地面被牛腳踐踏得乾硬、樹葉製的毯子單薄、寒風凜冽,而佛陀只有薄薄的外袍。佛陀重申他仍然感到快樂 (A. I: 136)。

2. The Buddha must have also enjoyed the freedom his life of wandering gave him. For him ‘the household life is full of hindrances, a path of dust. Free as the wind is the life of one who renounces all worldly things’ (D. I:62). However, moving from place to place had very important practical reasons behind it too, in a world without the communications that we take for granted it allowed him to spread his teachings far and wide. He was also aware that some personal contact with him was important, especially for newly ordained monks and nuns, and that this may have been a factor in determining in which districts he visited and how often (S,III:90). During his wanderings he might visit a district, teach, make some disciples, even ordain a few monks or nuns and then perhaps not come again for many years. If a monk from such a district wished to see him again he could simply set off to wherever the Buddha was staying at the time.

2. 佛陀定當享受遊方生活帶來的自由,對他來說「在家生活充滿羈絆,是一條暝曚的道路,捨棄世俗的事物就能如風一般自由」(D. I: 62)。然而,四處遊方的背後有很重要的原因,在缺乏通訊的時代,這能讓他把佛法廣泛地傳播開去。他亦意識到讓人們接觸自己的重要,特別是對於那些剛出家的比丘和比丘尼,這可能是決定了他到哪個地區和次數的因素 (S. III: 90)。在他遊方的時候,他可能到訪一個地方,在當地弘法,接受一些信眾皈依,甚至為一些比丘或比丘尼剃度,然後幾年也不再來。假如這些地方的比丘想再見佛陀,他只要前往佛陀當時所處的地方便可。

3. Sona Kutikanna was ordained by Mahakaccana and about a year later developed the desire to meet the man whose teachings he had committed himself to. He said to his preceptor; ‘I have not yet met the Lord face to face, I have only heard about what he is like. If you give me permission I will travel to see the Lord, the Noble One, the Enlightened Buddha’(Ud,58). For lay disciples with domestic obligations undertaking a long journey to see the Buddha would have been more difficult and so they may have had to wait, perhaps many years, before they got to see him again. The Thapataya Sutta gives us some idea of the excitement caused in an outlying district when its inhabitants heard that the Buddha might be on his way to see him and how the excitement increased as word of his gradual approach reached them (S,V:348-349). Elsewhere we read of people’s anxiousness for news about the Buddha and of what he had been teaching.

3. 二十億耳 (Sona Kutikanna) 是摩訶迦旃延 (Mahakaccana) 剃度的比丘。在出家大約一年後,二十億耳有一個願望,想見到那個他皈依其教義的人。他對戒師說:「我還未能與世尊見面,我只聽過他的容貌,假如你准許的話,我會前往見世尊、聖者、正等正覺者」(Ud. 58)。對擁有家庭責任的在家弟子,要長途跋涉去見佛陀會更加困難,因此他們可能要等很多年才可再與佛陀見面。《塔帕塔雅經》(Thapataya Sutta) 告訴我們,當一處邊陲地區的居民聽到佛陀可能正前往當地,有關他快將到達的消息傳至時,他們的情緒高漲也高漲起來 (S.V: 348-349)。其他地方提到人們着緊有關佛陀的消息,以及他正在講授的佛法。

4. Once a monk who had spent the rainy season with the Buddha in Savatthi arrived in Kapilavatthu. When people heard where the monk had come from he found himself deluged with questions about the Buddha (S,V:450). On another occasion a group of brahmins from Kosala and Magadha who had arrived in Vesali, heard that the Buddha just happened to be in town and decided that the opportunity to meet him was one that was too good to miss. The Buddha had apparently given his attendant instructions that he was not to be disturbed while the brahmins were adamant that they would not leave until they got to see the famous teacher.

4. 有一次,一位比丘與佛陀在舍衛城 (Savatthi) 度過雨季。當這比丘到了迦毗羅衛國 (Kapilavatthu),人知知道他從哪處來後,便接二連三詢問他關於佛陀的消息 (S.V: 450)。在另一次,一班憍薩羅國 (Kosala) 和摩揭陀國 (Magadha) 的婆羅門來到毘舍離 (Vesali),聽到佛陀剛巧在城中,認為是與佛陀見面千載難逢的機會。雖然佛陀明確指示侍者不要讓人打擾自己,但這些婆羅門卻堅持要見到佛陀才肯離開。

5. Seeing this impasse, the novice Siha asked the attendant to tell the Buddha that there were three people waiting to see him. The attendant said he would not do this but he wouldn’t object if Siha did. This was done, the Buddha asked Siha to put a mat outside his residence in the shade for him to sit on while he talked to the brahmins (D. I: 151). But the Buddha couldn’t be everywhere at once and so monks and nuns would often take long journeys for the privilege of spending some time in his presence. For example once while he was residing in Catuma at least five hundred monks arrived to see him (M,I: 456).

5. 沙彌司哈 (Siha) 看到情況僵持不下,便請侍者轉告佛陀有三個人正等待與他見面。該名侍者說不會這樣做,但亦不會反對司哈自行告訴佛陀。佛陀從司哈得知事情後,便吩咐他在樹蔭下擺放一張草蓆給自己坐,然後與婆羅門傾談起來 (D. I: 151)。佛陀不能同時間在所有的地方出現,因此比丘和比丘尼經常要攀山涉水爭取與他見面的機會。例如有一次他在車頭 (Catuma) 居住,就至少五百名比丘前往探望他 (M. I: 456)。

6. However, with him moving around a lot, it was not always possible to know where he was at any one time. In the beautiful Parayana Vagga of the Sutta Nipata we read of the sixteen disciples of the ascetic Bavari setting out for northern India in the hope of meeting the Buddha. First they heard that he was at Savatthi and ‘wearing matted hair and dressed in deer skin’ they headed there. They went through Kosambi and Saketa and arrived in Savatthi only to find that he had left some time previously. They followed his route through Setavya, Kapilavatthu, Kusinara, Pava and Vesali finally catching up with him at the Pasanaka Shrine, (Barabar Hills north of Gaya) ‘and like a thirsty man going for cool water, like merchants going for profit, like a heat exhausted man going for shade, they quickly ascended the mountain’ (Sn.1014).

6. 然而,佛陀經常四處遊方,不能清楚知道他某時候身處何方。我們在《經集》 (Sutta Nipata) 的〈彼岸道品〉 (Parayana Vagga) 讀到苦行者波婆梨 (Bavari) 的十六位弟子前往印度北部,希望能找到佛陀。最初他們聽到他在舍衛城 (Savatthi),是個「頭髮蓬鬆,身穿鹿皮」的人,他們便到了那處。他們經拘舍彌 (Kosambi) 和沙計多 (Saketa)到舍衛城,抵達時發現他已離開了一段時間。他們跟隨着他的行縱,經斯婆醯 (Setavya)、迦毗羅衛國 (Kapilavatthu)、拘尸那揭羅 (Kusinara)、巴婆 (Pava) 和毘舍離 (Vesali),最後在石寺 (Pasanaka Shrine) (位於伽耶以北的巴拉巴山Barabar Hills) 追上他,就像「口渴的人找尋冷水、商人追求利潤和被炎熱煎熬的人找尋陰涼處一樣,他們趕快登上山」(Sn.1014)。

7. There were undoubtedly as many languages and dialects spoken in the Buddha’s India as there are today and this would have created special problems for him. Theravada tradition asserts that the Buddha spoke Pali although there is no mention in the Tripitaka of what language he spoke. Like merchants, diplomats and others whose professions meant frequent travel in different regions it is very likely that apart from his mother tongue, which would have been a dialect of Kosala, he was probably fluent in several other languages as well.

7. 在佛陀的年代,印度毫無疑問有很多的語言和方言,情況就如現今一樣,這會對他造成特別的問題。雖然《大藏經》沒有提到佛陀所操的語言,但上座部的傳統聲稱佛陀是操巴利文的。佛陀如商人、外交官和其他要經常在各地穿梭的人,很可能除了他的母語 (應是憍薩羅語的一種方言),他或許還同時精於其他幾種語言。

8. In the Aranavibhanga Sutta he says that insisting on using one’s own dialect in an area where another is spoken can only cause confusion and conflict. ‘It has been said, “One should not stake too much on the local language...” How does one do this? In different regions they might call the same thing a pati, a patta, a vittha, a serava, a dharopa, a pona, a hana or a pisila (these are all different words for a bowl or dish). So whatever they call it in one region, one uses that word thinking, “It seems this person is referring to that object”, and one uses that word accordingly’ These are the words of someone familiar with a range of languages and dialects and who was very open and practical about language.

8. 他在《無諍分別經》(Aranavibhanga Sutta) 中指出,在異地堅持使用自己的語言只會導致混亂和衝突。「經文這樣說:『人不應過份注重自己的語言……』人怎樣做到這點?不同的地方人們可能稱同一樣東西為pati, patta, vittha, serava, dharopa, pona, hana或pisila (它們都解作碗或碟)。因此,無論人們在一處地方怎樣稱呼它,人在用這詞語時可這樣想:『這個人好像指這樣東西』,而他也要跟隨使用這詞語。」這說話是出自熟悉多種語言和方言,對語言持開放態度,以及從現實考慮語言問題的人。

9. The Buddha was equally open about regional customs as well. Once when he found some monks spending too much time bathing and playing in the water he made a rule that they should only bathe once a month. Later some monks who had been staying in an outlying region where people found their infrequent bathing revolting (not surprisingly) reported this to the Buddha and he allowed them to bathe more often to accord with the customs of that region. Once again this is the kind of thing one would expect of the urbane well-travelled individual. Whatever the Buddha was he was not parochial and no doubt his travels made him even more urbane and open-minded.

9. 佛陀對各地的習俗同樣持開明的態度。有一次,他發現一些比丘用了太多的時間在沐浴和玩水,他因而訂了一條戒律,規定他們只能一個月沐浴一次。後來,一些在邊陲地區居住比丘向佛陀報告,當地人討厭他們不常沐浴的習慣 (毫不奇怪)。佛陀於是准許他們多點沐浴,以跟隨該處地方的習俗。這樣的態度是一個溫文爾雅和的走南闖北的人應有的。無論佛陀怎樣,他都不是個眼光狹窄的人,毫無疑問遊方使他更為彬彬有禮和開通明達。

有關佛陀最後旅程的地圖可見:

For a map showing the Buddha’s last journey see

http://www.ancient-buddhist-texts.net/Maps/MP-index.htm

2011年9月23日星期五

Footprints In The Dust I (塵土上的足跡)

Shravasti Dhammika, Footprints In The Dust I

達爾卡法師 著   伍煥炤 譯 :〈塵土上的足跡〉I

1. The only two of the great religious teachers who were successful during their own lifetimes were the Mohammed and Siddhatta Gotama, the Buddha. Both had long teaching careers and both lived to see their respective religions firmly established. Prof. Basham has written that Buddhism was a minor religion until its adoption and promotion by King Asoka. Basham bases his assumption on the fact that there is no archaeological evidence of Buddhism before Asoka’s time but this seems to me to be a rather weak argument. What physical evidence are wandering ascetics, which are what the Buddha’s disciples were, likely to leave? They established few permanent monasteries and those they did build were made of mud, bamboo and thatch. As for stupas, these did not become an important feature of Buddhist worship until about the 2nd century BCE. The Pali Tipitaka offers ample and convincing evidence that the Buddha was well known throughout wide tracts of northern India and that his Dhamma attracted large numbers of converts from all classes, especially the elite.

1. 只有穆罕默德和佛陀喬達摩.釋達多這兩位偉大的宗教宗師,在他們有生之年是成功的。兩人均有很長的傳教生涯,並看到各自的宗教穩固地建立起來。巴沙姆 (Basham) 教授提到直到阿育王信奉和提倡佛教之前,它只是個小宗教。巴沙姆的假設是基於沒有發掘到阿育王時代前的佛教文物,但對我來說這個論據非常薄弱。作為遊方的修行者,佛陀的弟子能留下甚麼實質的證據?他們建立了少量固定的寺院,而所建的寺院都是使用泥、竹和茅草來建築,佛塔也是在公元前二世紀才成為供奉佛教的主要特徵。巴利文《大藏經》提供了充份和可信的證據,證明佛陀在印度北部大多處地方廣為人識,他的佛法吸引了很多來自各階層,特別是精英階層的信徒。

2. The highly critical attitude of Jains and brahmins towards the new teaching as recorded in the Tipitaka suggests that they saw it as a real threat. An important cause of the Buddha’s success was no doubt his extraordinary personality. Even despite the great distance in time between he and us, the heavy editing of the suttas and their rather stilted language, the Buddha’s warm and compassionate presence shines through on nearly every page. The logical consistency of his Dhamma must have been an important factor also. However, no matter how appealing a teacher or how common-sense a teaching it will not attract converts unless they can come into contact with it. The Buddha was a missionary from the very beginning and this was, together with the two things mentioned above, the most important factor in the early success of his teachings. He had a still heart but a very mobile body.

2.《大藏經》記載耆那教徒和婆羅門教徒對對這個新宗教極為批判,顯示他們視它為一個實在的威脅。超凡的性格無疑是佛陀成功的要素。儘管佛陀的時代與我們相距甚遠,佛經編排複雜,而文字又生硬,但差不多每一頁的經文都顯現了佛陀真摯和慈祥的風采。佛法邏輯的一致性也一定是個重要的因素。然而,無論是怎樣優秀的宗師,又或是眾人皆知的教義,若果接觸不到人的話也不能吸引信眾。佛陀由一開始就是個傳教士,這一點是早期佛法成功的關鍵。他擁有一顆寂靜的心和非常無拘無束的身軀。

3. According to the Tipitaka, almost the first thing the Buddha did after his enlightenment was to embark on a long journey in order to teach others what he had discovered. Equally significantly, his instructions to his first five disciples was that they should ‘wander forth’ to teach others what he had taught them.

3. 根據《大藏經》,佛陀在覺悟後幾乎第一件所做的事情,便是展開漫長的旅程,教導人們他發現的真諦。他指示首五名弟子「四處遊方」,把他傳授的佛法教導給其他人同樣是意義重大。

4. The area in which the Buddha wandered during his life corresponds roughly to the modern Indian states of Uttar Pradesh and Bihar. The furthermost east he went which can still be identified is Kajangla (now Kankjol, 18 km south of Rajmahal right on the Indo-Bangladesh border) and the furthermost west he is known to have gone is Mathura, some 180 kilometres south of Delhi. These two locations are nearly a thousand kilometers apart. The Buddha’s movements northwards were of course limited by the then impenetrable jungles of the Himalayan foothills and it is unlikely that he ever went further south than the southern edge of the Ganges watershed. Still, this would mean that his wanderings covered an area roughly equivalent to 200,000 square kilometers, a huge area by any standards.

4. 佛陀在有生之年遊方的地方大約相當於現今印度的北方邦 (Uttar Pradesh) 和比哈爾邦 (Bihar)。最東他所到而仍可辨認的地方是羯朱嗢祇羅國 (Kajangla) (現今坎喀爾 (Kankjol),南距拉馬霍爾 (Rajmahal )十八公里,位於印度和孟加拉邊境)。最西他曾去到馬圖拉 (Mathura),約德里 (Delhi) 一百八十公里以南。這兩處地方相距差不多一千公里。佛陀向北的旅程到達喜馬拉雅山腳,被該處茂密的森林阻礙,無法跨過。他也沒有可能到過恆河分水嶺南陲以外的地方。即使如此,這表示他遊方的範圍大約等於二萬平方公里,以任何的標準來說都是一個遼闊的地區。

5. The evidence suggests that the Buddha only occasionally visited the outer edges of this region. For example, he only visited Mathura once and he probably visited Anga in the east (i.e. Campa, Bhaddiya and Kajangla corresponding to modern Bhagalpur District) only once also. Incidentally, I believe that Bhaddiya or Bhaddiyanagara as it is also sometimes called in the Tipitaka, can be safely identified with the village of Bhadariya some 12 kilometers south of Bhagalpur. However, most of the Buddha’s wanderings took place in the eastern part of this area, between the great cities of Savatthi, Rajagaha, Vesali and Kosambi. The Tipitaka mention carriageways in towns and paths, roads and highways through the countryside. However there is little doubt that these names referred to the frequency of traffic on these arteries, not to the quality of their paving or their width. All roads in ancient India were little more than dusty, rutted tracks in the summer and impassable rivers of mud in the rainy season. Banditry added to the risks of long distance travel.

5. 證據顯示佛陀只偶爾到訪這地區的邊陲,例如他只到過馬圖拉 (Mathura) 一次,也可能只到過東面的鴦伽 (Anga) 一次 (例如占婆 Campa、跋提 Bhaddiya和羯朱嗢祇羅國Kajangla,相當於現今的巴加爾布林 Bhagalpur District)。順帶一提,我相信跋提或《大藏經》有時稱為跋提城 (Bhaddiyanagara) 的地方,能準確被辨認為巴加爾布林以南十二公里一條稱為跋提的村落。然而,佛陀大多數遊方的地方集中在這地區的東部,在舍衛城 (Savatthi)、王舍城 (Rajagaha)、毘舍離 (Vesali) 和拘舍彌 (Kosambi) 這些大城市之間。《大藏經》提到城鎮中的車道,以及市郊佈滿小路和大道。但毋庸置疑,這些名稱所指是道路車輛的流量,而不是它們鋪砌的質素或寬度。所有古印度的道路大多是塵土飛揚,夏天時崎嶇不平雨季時佈滿令人舉步難行的泥濘,盜賊則增加長途旅途的危險。

6. Travellers on the road between Savatthi and Sakheta were often robbed (Vin, IV: 87) and of course the fearsome Angulimala was a robber and murderer who operated in forested areas around Savatthi. Once the Buddha and an attendant were on tour of Kosala when they came to a fork in the road. The Buddha said they should take one fork while the attendant said they should take the other. This debate continued for some time until in a huff the attendant put the Buddha’s bowl down and walked off on the way he thought correct. He hadn’t gone far before he was attacked by bandits who ‘struck him with their fists and feet and tore his robe’ (Ud, 90). In the more remote districts travellers might have difficulty finding food, water and shelter. The Tipitaka mentions a traveller getting down on all fours to drink from a puddle in a cow’s footprint because no other water was available and of two parents lost in the wilderness who saved themselves from starvation by killing and eating their child. More normally thought travel was just uncomfortable, tedious and undertaken only when necessary. And yet it seems that the Buddha spent most of his time on the road in order to reach as many people as possible. Such was his determination and compassion.

6. 往來舍衛城 (Savatthi) 和沙計多 (Saketa) 的旅人常被盜賊搶劫 (Vin. IV: 87),央掘摩羅 (Angulimala) 這名令人生畏的盜賊和殺手就是在舍衛城附近的森林出沒。有一次,佛陀與一名侍者前往憍薩羅國 (Kosala),當他們到到達一岔路時,佛陀說應走這一邊,而侍者則說走另一邊。這討論持續了一會,侍者在一怒之下放低佛陀的鉢,朝他認為正確的道路走去。他走到不遠就被盜賊襲擊,他們對他「拳打腳踢,並撕破他的僧袍」(Ud. 90)。在一些較為偏僻的地區,旅人可能在找食物、食水和住宿遇上困難。《大藏經》提到一名旅人因為找不到水源,結果要趴在地上,在牛腳印下的水坑喝水。又有一對父母在荒野迷路,他們靠殺死和吃掉自己孩子來充饑才得以保存性命。大多數人認為旅途勞頓和乏味的,只有在必要時才展開。然而,佛陀好像把大多時間用於旅途上,以接觸更多的人。這就是他的毅力和慈祥。

7. In keeping with the rules laid down by himself and in accordance with long established samana tradition, the Buddha spent three months of the rainy season in one location and the rest of the year on what were called ‘walking tours’. According to the commentarial tradition after the 20th year of his ministry he spent every rainy season in or near Savatthi, the capital of Kosala. The fact that more of his discourses are set in this city that in any other place suggests that there is some foundation in this tradition and if it is true he may have decided to limit his wanderings at that time due to age. He would have been sixty years old at the time. All the Buddha’s journeys were undertaken on foot although as there are numerous rivers in the land he knew he must have often had to use boats or ferries despite being no specific mention of him ever actually doing this.

7. 為遵循自己制定的戒律和沙門的一貫傳統,佛陀會在一處地方度過雨季,其他的時間則展開我們所指的「徒步旅程」。根據註釋,在弘法二十年後,他每個雨季都留在憍薩羅國 (Kosala) 的首都舍衛城 (Savatthi) 或附近的地方。佛陀在這城市弘法較任何其他地方多,這顯示了這傳統有一定的根據。又若這是事實的話,他可能由於當時年齡的關係而決定減少遊方,因他當時己經有六十歲。所有佛陀的旅程都是步行的,然而他亦常乘船或擺渡橫過陸上無數的河流,儘管這沒有特別的記錄。

8. We read of monks once crossing a river by holding on to the tails and backs of a herd of cattle that was swimming across the same river suggesting that when there was neither bridges, boats or rafts that the Buddha might have had to improvise as these monks did. There is no mention of the Buddha travelling by carriage or cart. In only one place is he described as wearing sandals, so he probably went bare footed most of the time (Vin,IV:186).

8. 我們讀到有一次比丘們過河的情景,他們抓緊同在過河牛隻的尾巴和背,顯示當沒有橋、船或筏的時候,佛陀也可能像這些比丘般隨機應變。佛經沒有提到他在旅途中乘客運車或運貨車,只有一處地方描述他穿着涼鞋,因此他大多時間都應是赤腳步行(Vin. IV: 186)。

9. The Tipitaka mentions the itinerary of many of the Buddha’s journeys giving us an idea of the distances he sometimes travelled. For example, we know that within the first twelve months after his enlightenment he went from Uruvela to Isipatthana via Gaya and Benares, spent the three months of the rainy season there and then travelled to Rajagaha via Benares, Gaya, Uruvela and Lativanna. All these places can be identified with certainly and thus we can calculate that he must have walked at least 300 kilometers. In the longest single journey recorded in the Tipitaka, he went from Rajagaha: to Vesali to Savatthi and back to Rajagaha via Kitigiri and Avali, a round trip of at least 1600 kilometres (Vin, IV,189). It is likely that he would have started a trip like this at the end of the rains retreat and arrived back in time for the next retreat nine months later. Unfortunately, it is not possible to know how much time these or any of the other journeys might have taken.

9. 《大藏經》提到很多佛陀旅程的日誌,讓我們對他有時行走的路程有點概念。例如,我們知道他在覺悟後的一年內,他由優婁頻羅 (Uruvela) 前住仙人住處 (Isipatthana),途經迦耶 (Gaya) 和波羅奈 (Benares),在仙人住處渡過三個月的雨季,然後經波羅奈、迦耶和優婁頻羅和杖林 (Latthivana) 回到王舍城。這些地方可肯定被確認,因此我們能計算他行走了至少三百公里。《大藏經》記載他最長的旅程是由王舍城到毘舍離 (Vesali) 和舍衛城 (Savatthi),然後經迦尸黑山 (Kitagiri) 和曠野國 (Alavi) 折返王舍城,來回至少一千六百公里 (Vin. IV: 189)。他可能在結夏安居後展開這樣的旅程,並準時在九個月後的下一次結夏安居返回來。可惜的是我們無法得知這些旅程所需的時間。

10. In the famous Mahaparinibbana Sutta we know that he went from Rajagaha to Kusinara via Nalanda, Patna and Vesali, a total distance of about 300 kilometers. According to the sutta he left Vesali at the end of the rains retreat (October) and of course he is supposed to have attained final nirvana in Kusinara on the full moon of Vesakha (May). This suggests that he took seven months to travel about 95 kilometres. Even allowing for the fact that he was old and in ill health this seems like a very long time. It should be pointed out that only later text in the Tipitaka mention that the Buddha’s parinivana took place at Vesakha and the sutta gives the impression that while his last journey was slow it was at a steady pace. However, it seems likely that the Buddha conducted his journeys at a leisurely pace.

10. 我們從著名的《大般涅槃經》知道他由王舍城出發,經那爛陀寺 (Nalanda)、巴特那 (Patna) 和毘舍離 (Vesali) 到達拘尸那揭羅 (Kusinara),全程約三百公里。根據他在結夏安居 (十月) 後在毘舍離所說的經文,他應在衛塞節 (五月) 的滿月在拘尸那揭羅得證涅槃。這顯示他在七個月行了約九十五公里。即使考慮到他年紀老邁和病了一段頗長的時間,這也像一段很長的時間。必須強調只有《大藏經》後期的經文提到佛陀在衛塞節涅槃,這給人的印象是即使他最後的旅程緩慢,但步伐仍是穩健的。然而,佛陀很可能是悠閒地展開他的旅程。

11. The evidence suggests that he would wake before sunrise, go for pindapata in the nearest town or village just after sunrise and having eaten, would set off while it was still cool. He would walk until the midday heat became unpleasant and then take an afternoon rest. If there was a village nearby he might stay until the next morning and if not he might continue walking until he got to the next village. How long he stayed at a particular place would have depended on many factors - whether local people came to talk with and listen with him, whether food and water was available, whether the atmosphere was congenial. We know for example that he cut short his first stay in Rajagaha when people began to complain that too many young men were leaving their families to become monks. Once he arrived in the village of Thuna to find that there was no water to drink because the brahmin inhabitants, hearing that he was coming, had blocked up their wells with rice husks and cow dung. The warm and respectful reception that Buddhist monks get today was not always available to the Buddha and his disciples. He is often described as travelling with either 500 monks (a conventional number meaning ‘a lot’) or simply with ‘a large group of monks’. At other times he would dismiss his attendant and companions telling them that he wanted to wander by himself for a while (S.III:94).

11. 證據顯示他在黎明前醒來,剛日出便到最近的城鎮或村落托缽,飯後當天氣仍然涼快時起程,一直行到中午,直到炎熱的天氣使人不適時他便會在下午休息。假如附近有村落他可能逗留到明早,若果沒有的話他可能繼續行程,直到抵達下一條村落。他逗留在一個地方多久取決於很多的因素 — 當地人是否到來聆聽佛法,與自己交談,有沒有食物和食水供應,氣氛是否和睦。例如我們知道他縮短第一次到王舍城 (Rajagaha) 的時間,因為當地人開始投訴太多年青人捨棄家庭出家為僧。(Vin. IV: 43)。有一次他抵達土拿村 (Thuna),發現沒有飲用的食水,原來當地的婆羅門居民在聽到他到來時,便用稻殼和牛糞把他們的水井封起來 (Ud.78)。現今佛教比丘們受到熱情和恭敬的接待,這是佛陀和他的弟子不常遇到的。佛陀常被形容與五百比丘 (慣常解作「很多」的意思) 或簡單地指與「一大群比丘」遊方。他也有時候會辭退侍者和同伴,告訴他們自己想單獨遊方一會 (S. III: 94)。

  * 歡迎轉載,但請註明出處和不改動譯文內容。

2011年9月20日星期二

第七章 我如何成為素食者 9

Shravasti Dhammika, To EAT OR NOT TO EAT MEAT: A BUDDHIST REFLECTION

Chapter 7 How I became a vegetarian

9. Since that time I have cut my meat consumption by at least 95%. The force of long established habit, circumstance or just the desire for a juicy steak accounting for the other 5%. So my decision to become vegetarian was brought about by three things - a gradual awareness of the need for active and engaged (as opposed to passive) metta in the Buddhist life, by an incident of visceral revulsion with meat, and then by the reasoning of a philosopher helping me see the implications in the Buddha’s words that I had not seen before. I could not honestly say that I am grateful to that Cambodian man with his putrefying chickens, but I am most grateful to Peter Singer.

達爾卡法師 著   伍煥炤 譯 :《吃肉還是不吃肉:佛教的反思》

第七章   我如何成為素食者

9.  由這時候開始,我減低了至少百份之九十五的肉食量,餘下的百份之五是由於長期建立的習慣、環境或只是對一塊多汁牛排的慾望。因此,我成為素食者的決定是由三樣東西促成的 — 漸漸領悟到佛教生活需要積極實踐慈心 (與被動的相反)、一次出自本能對肉類嫌惡的事件,以及一位哲學家的論證幫助我領悟到佛陀說話的意義,這是我以往沒有認識到的。我實在不能說要感謝那位賣腐壞雞隻的柬埔寨男人,但我真的非常感激彼得.辛格。

* 歡迎轉載,但請註明出處和不改動譯文內容。

2011年9月15日星期四

With ungratified desires the sensual die

The man who gathers flowers (of sensual pleasure), whose mind is distracted, and who is insatiate in desires, the Destroyer brings under his sway.

Ven. Nàrada, Dhammapada

Ven. Kakkapalliye Anuruddha Thera解釋了以上的偈誦。

採集花卉 (沉溺感官欲樂),心生染着,貪欲不知足的人,死亡會到臨他的身上。

這首偈誦與一名女子的生死有關。

一名女子在忉利天誕生,她的名字是瑪拉巴哈爾 (Malabhari),是忉利天王的妻子。有一日,她到花園採摘花朵,她突然去世。她在人世間再生,名為庫瑪莉 (Patipujika Kumari) 。

當天人快將死亡時,有五樣的跡象會出現,稱為天人五衰。他頭上的花環會凋謝、衣服變得骯髒、腋窩流汗、身體失去光澤、不喜歡坐在平日的寶座。其他天人看到這情景後,便會集合一起,鼓勵即將死亡的天人要往生人間,因為只有在人間才能聽到佛陀說法,這是非常難得的機會。

當庫瑪莉十六歲時,父母為她安排婚嫁,後來生了四名子女。庫瑪莉能記起前生的事情,知道自己是忉利天王的妻子,心中常想着要再次往生忉利天。庫瑪莉是一位虔誠的佛教徒,每日到佛寺聽法師說法和布施,累積了很多善業。有一日,她到寺院幫助清潔,向僧侶布施後回家,不久就病死了。庫瑪莉死後,她往生忉利天。

佛教認為,假若人心常想着一善的目標,這目標是可達成的,正如庫瑪莉的做法。人的生死由業力決定,我們日常生活的每一刻都是累積業力,生死是息息相關的。

庫瑪莉到了忉利天時,忉利天王說早上看不到她,問她去了甚麼地方。庫瑪莉回答她當地死了,並往生人間,然後才回到忉利天。人間一百年等於天上一日。忉利天王說人生是很短暫的,問人是否過着德行的生活。庫瑪莉回答世間有好人和壞人。

寺院的僧人對庫瑪莉的逝世感到傷心,他們把事情告訴佛陀。佛陀說不要悲傷,因為她只是返回所屬的地方。佛陀然後說出以上的偈誦。

2011年9月8日星期四

第七章 我如何成為素食者 8

Shravasti Dhammika, To EAT OR NOT TO EAT MEAT: A BUDDHIST REFLECTION

Chapter 7 How I became a vegetarian

8.  As I followed his arguments I found myself forced by the logic of them to agree with him. Over the next week or two I returned to parts of the book and reread them and finally decided that anyone who wants metta and karuna to be a more important part of their character would have to seriously consider being vegetarian. As a Buddhist I do wish to have metta and karuna dominant in my life and so I made the decision to abstain from eating meat.

達爾卡法師 著   伍煥炤 譯 :《吃肉還是不吃肉:佛教的反思》

第七章   我如何成為素食者

8.   當我理解他的論據時,發覺自己不期然地被當中的邏輯說服。在往後的一兩個星期,我再次閱讀書的部份章節,最後得到一個結論,就是任何人若想慈心和悲心成為性格的重要部份,都應認真考慮吃素。作為一個佛教徒,我確實希望慈心和悲心主導我的人生,因此,我決心要戒除吃肉。

* 歡迎轉載,但請註明出處和不改動譯文內容。

2011年9月5日星期一

第七章 我如何成為素食者 7

Shravasti Dhammika, To EAT OR NOT TO EAT MEAT: A BUDDHIST REFLECTION

Chapter 7 How I became a vegetarian

7.  One hot afternoon as I lay on my bed feeling rather bored and with nothing to read, I picked Singer's book up thinking to just browse through it. As it happened, the parts I read interested me so much that I returned to the beginning and read the whole thing in three sittings. I had been expecting it to take the usual vegetarian's approach, calling meat ‘carrion’ or ‘rotten flesh,’ quoting the opinions of famous odd-ball vegetarians, giving long descriptions of how meat ferments in the bowels and claiming that a vegetarians’ poo smells better than a meat eaters’ poo. Instead, Singer argues for the kind treatment of animals (including not eating them) soberly, objectively, logically and convincingly. Peter Singer is a professional philosopher and he writes like one. And incidentally, he has nothing to do with the extremist animal rights group Animal Liberation.

達爾卡法師 著   伍煥炤 譯 :《吃肉還是不吃肉:佛教的反思》

第七章   我如何成為素食者

7.  在一個炎熱的下午,我躺在床上,感到很無聊,在沒東西閱讀的情況下,我拿起辛格的書,心想只翻一翻。事情凑巧,我被眼前閱讀的章節深深吸引着,於是由頭開始閱讀,並分三次把書讀完。我最初以為它採用常見的素食主義者的方式,稱肉類為「臭屍」或「腐肉」、引用著名古怪素食主義者的意見、長篇描述肉類如何在腸內發酵,並聲稱素食主義者糞便的氣味比肉食者好。辛格沒有這樣做,而是冷靜、客觀、 符合邏輯和具說服力地主張友善對待動物 (包括不吃牠們)。彼得.辛格是一位高水準的哲學家,他的寫作也恰如其分。順便提一句,他與極端的動物權益組織動物解放 (Animal Liberation) 沒有任何的關係。

* 歡迎轉載,但請註明出處和不改動譯文內容。

2011年8月31日星期三

第七章 我如何成為素食者 6

Shravasti Dhammika, To EAT OR NOT TO EAT MEAT: A BUDDHIST REFLECTION

Chapter 7 How I became a vegetarian

6.  Three months later, on a quick trip to Australia, a Sri Lankan friend gave me some things to deliver to his brother back in Sri Lanka. One of these things was a book called Animal Liberation by Peter Singer.* I had never heard of this book and its title aroused no interest in me. Back in Sri Lanka I called the brother and he said he would come the next day to collect the things. However, he didn't show up for another three months. The book and other things sat around my room acting as a sort of silent reminder of how casual Sinhalese can be towards keeping appointments.

* The book has recently been re-issued as Animal Liberation - The Definitive Classic of the Animal Liberation Movement, Harper 2009.

達爾卡法師 著   伍煥炤 譯 :《吃肉還是不吃肉:佛教的反思》

第七章   我如何成為素食者

6.  三個月後,我在澳洲短期旅行,一位斯里蘭卡朋友托我帶些東西回當地的兄弟,其中一樣東西是一本彼得.辛格 (Peter Singer) 撰寫的《動物解放》(Animal Liberation)*。我從沒有聽過這本書,它的題目也沒喚起我的興趣。回到斯里蘭卡後,我通知朋友的兄弟,他說明日來取這些東西。然而,他在三個月內也沒有出現。這本書和其他東西就放在我的房間,無聲無息地提示着僧伽羅人對赴約是何等的隨意。

這本書在2009年由Harper出版社重新發行,書名Animal Liberation - The Definitive Classic of the Animal Liberation Movement

* 歡迎轉載,但請註明出處和不改動譯文內容。

2011年8月29日星期一

第七章 我如何成為素食者 5

Shravasti Dhammika, To EAT OR NOT TO EAT MEAT: A BUDDHIST REFLECTION

Chapter 7 How I became a vegetarian

5.  As I sat at the table with all the dishes of food on it I immediately noticed that the main dish was, you guessed it, chicken. As soon as I saw it my stomach began to churn again and I had to rush from the hall. I didn’t vomit this time but my appetite had quite gone. Over the next few weeks my taste for meat, any meat, just went. It slowly returned but if the memory of the putrid formalin-dosed chickens was aroused I had to consciously suppress it or lose my appetite.

達爾卡法師 著   伍煥炤 譯 :《吃肉還是不吃肉:佛教的反思》

第七章   我如何成為素食者

5.  當我坐在放滿食物的桌子,你猜一猜我當時發覺主菜是甚麼,就是雞肉。我一看到後胃部又再劇烈攪動,我趕快離開飯堂。這次我沒有嘔吐,但我完全失去了胃口。在往後的幾個星期,我失去對任所肉類的興趣,要慢慢才恢復過來。但若想起攙入福爾馬林的腐爛雞隻,我便要刻意壓抑這記憶,要不是的話就會失去食慾。

* 歡迎轉載,但請註明出處和不改動譯文內容。

2011年8月25日星期四

第七章 我如何成為素食者 4

Shravasti Dhammika, To EAT OR NOT TO EAT MEAT: A BUDDHIST REFLECTION

Chapter 7 How I became a vegetarian

4.  The association in my mind of food, the chicken, and the formalin, which as you probably know is used by undertakers to preserve human cadavers, revolted me so much that I turned away and actually vomited. A man behind one of the stalls saw this and most kindly offered me a glass of water so I could wash my mouth out. When I got back to the temple I was still feeling a bit nauseous but not so much that I could not eat and when the lunch bell rang I made my way to the dining hall.

達爾卡法師 著   伍煥炤 譯 :《吃肉還是不吃肉:佛教的反思》

第七章   我如何成為素食者

4.  你可能知道殯儀業者用福爾馬林來保存屍體。我想到這些雞肉和福爾馬林加在一起時,感到極為噁心,轉頭便真的嘔吐起來。一個攤檔的男人看到了我的情況,很友善地給我一杯水來清潔口腔。我回到寺院後仍感到有點作嘔,但沒有嚴重到使我不能進食。當午飯的鐘聲響起後,我便前往飯堂。

* 歡迎轉載,但請註明出處和不改動譯文內容。

2011年8月23日星期二

第七章 我如何成為素食者 3

Shravasti Dhammika, To EAT OR NOT TO EAT MEAT: A BUDDHIST REFLECTION

Chapter 7 How I became a vegetarian

3.  Then it dawned on me. The chickens were slightly putrid, in places their yellowish-white skin was going green or gray and the stench of decay wafted up into my nostrils. The man was sticking a needle attached to the hose into each chicken and as he did so the boy pumped the cylinder. In countries like Cambodia, when a butcher’s or fish monger’s wares have gone off, it is sometimes pumped full of formalin to disguise the putrefaction so it can continue to be sold. Of course this is illegal but in such countries the enforcement of health regulations are rather lax.

達爾卡法師 著   伍煥炤 譯 :《吃肉還是不吃肉:佛教的反思》

第七章   我如何成為素食者

3.  然後我明白了。這些雞隻已經輕微腐爛,部份黄白色的雞皮正變成綠色或灰色,腐爛的惡臭撲鼻而來。當這個男人把連着軟管的針插入每隻雞的時候,男童則泵着氣瓶。在一些好像柬埔寨的國家,當屠夫或魚販的貨物變質了,有時候會被注滿福爾馬林來掩飾腐壞,以便能繼續售賣。當然這是非法的行為,但在這些國家衛生法規的執行是相當寬鬆的。

* 歡迎轉載,但請註明出處和不改動譯文內容。

2011年8月19日星期五

第七章 我如何成為素食者 2

Shravasti Dhammika, To EAT OR NOT TO EAT MEAT: A BUDDHIST REFLECTION

Chapter 7 How I became a vegetarian

2.  I walked on hoping to get to the fruit and vegetable section and a few minutes later found my way blocked by a large round basket that was placed right in the middle of the aisle. The basket was full of dead and plucked chickens and a man was crouching beside the basket doing something to the chickens with a hose while a young boy stood on the other side doing something with what looked like a gas cylinder. I stood there for a moment trying to take in the scene before me.

達爾卡法師 著   伍煥炤 譯 :《吃肉還是不吃肉:佛教的反思》

第七章   我如何成為素食者

2.  我繼續走希望到售賣水果和蔬菜的地方。幾分鐘後,我發覺前路給一個圓形的大籃子阻擋着,它剛好擺放在通道的中間。籃子裝滿拔掉毛的死雞,一個男人蹲在旁邊,用軟管對着雞隻,而一個男童則站在另一邊,好像拿着一個氣瓶在工作。我站在那裏一會,想看看眼前的景象。

* 歡迎轉載,但請註明出處和不改動譯文內容。

2011年8月18日星期四

第七章 我如何成為素食者 1

Shravasti Dhammika, To EAT OR NOT TO EAT MEAT: A BUDDHIST REFLECTION

Chapter 7 How I became a vegetarian

1.  It was a Saturday morning and I was in Phnom Penh walking through the central market looking for some fruit to buy. I unknowingly soon found myself in the meat section. Even a blind person would know they were there. The stench was overpowering. Chickens with wet feathers and blank expressions sat in tiny cages, probably oblivious to what was soon to happen to them. The goats certainly knew. You could see it in their eyes. But there was nothing they could do and they just stood there, heads bowed, resigned to their fate. Meat hung on hooks, knives and cleavers lay on chopping blocks and everything was covered with blood and flies. For a nonhuman animal it would be a vision of hell.

達爾卡法師 著   伍煥炤 譯 :《吃肉還是不吃肉:佛教的反思》

第七章   我如何成為素食者

1.  這是個星期日的早上,我走進金邊的中央市場選購水果,不知不覺地發現自己走到了售賣肉類的地方。即使是一個失明的人也知道他們處身這裏。這裏的惡臭讓人無法忍受。雞隻的羽毛濕透,呆滯地蹲在小籠內,可能未察覺到自己快將發生的事情。山羊肯定知道是甚麼回事,你可從牠們的眼中看出來。然而,牠們沒有甚麼可以做,只能站在那裏,低着頭接受命運的安排。肉掛在鉤上,刀子和切肉刀則放在砧板上,所有的東西都佈滿了血和蒼蠅。對於人類之外的動物而言,這就是地獄的情景。

* 歡迎轉載,但請註明出處和不改動譯文內容。

2011年8月16日星期二

Death takes the sensual unawares (IV)

The man who gathers flowers (of sensual pleasure), whose mind is distracted, death carries off as a great flood sweeps away a sleeping village.

Ven. Nàrada, Dhammapada

Ven. Kakkapalliye Anuruddha Thera解釋了以上的偈誦。

採集花卉 (沉溺感官欲樂),心生染着的人,死亡就好像洪水一樣沉睡的村落。

有一日,波斯匿王前往迦毘羅衛國,佛陀剛巧也在當地的寺院。波斯匿王於是前往見佛陀,吩咐班杜拉的侄子準備馬車。到達寺院後,波斯匿王除下國王的儀仗,然後靜靜行到佛陀的房間,虔誠地頂禮佛陀。

當波斯匿王與佛陀談話時,班杜拉的侄子在拿着國王的儀仗,帶領軍隊返回憍薩羅國,擁立毘琉璃為新國王。波斯匿王離開時發覺所有軍隊和在侍從都離開了,明白到可能發生兵變。波斯匿王打算請求摩揭陀國的頻婆娑羅王派兵幫助奪回王位。波斯匿王來到王舍城時城門已經關閉,他只能在城門外度宿。第二日早上,波斯匿王在睡中逝世。頻婆娑羅王為波斯匿王舉行葬禮。

毘琉璃成為王帝後決定攻打迦毘羅衛國,報復釋迦族人欺騙父親波斯匿王。毘琉璃統領大軍,抵達迦毘羅衛國的邊境,看到佛陀坐在樹下。毘琉璃很尊敬佛陀,上前頂禮佛陀。

毘琉璃對佛陀說:「世尊,為甚麼你不坐在樹蔭較多的地方?」

佛陀回答:「雖然這處沒有太多的樹蔭,但從迦毘羅衛國方向吹來了涼風。」

毘琉璃聽到後,明白佛陀不支持他征伐迦毘羅衛國,於是帶領軍隊返回憍薩羅國。後來,毘琉璃又再討伐迦毘羅衛國,途中又遇到佛陀。毘琉璃同樣退兵。毘琉璃第三次領軍攻打迦毘羅衛國,佛陀也在軍隊途經的地方出現。毘琉璃又再取消出兵。

到了第四次,佛陀深思迦毘羅衛國的將來,意識到釋迦族人犯了共業 (collective kamma),他們的滅亡是無可避免的。這次佛陀沒有再阻止毘琉璃。憍薩羅國的士兵攻陷迦毘羅衛國,毘琉璃下令殺死所有的釋迦族人,只放過外祖父一家。

毘琉璃返回憍薩羅國,大軍在河邊紮營度宿。晚上下着大雨,引發河水泛濫,結果把所有人沖到大海淹死。佛陀知道這事情後說出了以上的偈誦。

比丘們問佛陀釋迦族人犯了甚麼共業。佛陀說在過往生中,他們把毒藥放在河中,毒死了其他飲用河水的人,因此形成了共業。

性空法師 (Bhante Dhammadipa) 佛法講座

來自捷克、曾親近南北傳大師學習的性空法師(Bhante Dhammadipa),將於九月一日(星期四)及九月二日(星期五),晚上七時至九時,於本會尖沙咀中心開示佛法。

是次到訪中心,將對在香港的佛友們開示如何修行佛法之道。

講座無需報名,英語主講,由蕭式球老師翻譯粵語。

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2011年8月12日星期五

Death takes the sensual unawares (III)

The man who gathers flowers (of sensual pleasure), whose mind is distracted, death carries off as a great flood sweeps away a sleeping village.

Ven. Nàrada, Dhammapada

Ven. Kakkapalliye Anuruddha Thera解釋了以上的偈誦。

採集花卉 (沉溺感官欲樂),心生染着的人,死亡就好像洪水一樣沉睡的村落。

毘琉璃日漸長大,有一日他問起母親有關外祖父母,她的母親不敢告訴他,只說他們住在很遠的地方。後來,她最終告訴他可到迦毘羅衛國找外祖父母。毘琉璃到了迦毘羅衛國。當釋迦族人知道快將來到,決定把所有青年送出城外,因此他們不必向毘琉璃行禮。毘琉璃在迦毘羅衛國的議會內向長老行禮,但卻發現沒有人出來向自己行禮,感到沒有受到釋迦族人的尊重。

在接受款待後,毘琉璃與隨從便離開議會。當中一隨從遺留了武器,於是返回議會拿取。當他到了議會時,看到一婢女正用牛奶清洗毘琉璃坐的位置,並說自己在清潔「婢女兒子」的座位。該隨從聽到後奇怪為甚麼這婢女會這樣說,他把事情告訴毘琉璃。毘琉璃感到很憤怒,認為釋迦族人欺騙自己的父親,決定日後要向釋迦族人報復。

波斯匿王委任昔日在呾叉始羅的朋友班杜拉 (Bandula) 為將軍,班杜拉是末羅國人,精於箭術。班杜拉與妻子多年都沒有兒女,他於是吩咐妻子返回娘家。班杜拉的妻子感到很傷心,打算在回家前向佛陀告別。她到了寺院,告訴佛陀要返回娘家的原來,佛陀叫她返回丈夫家中。當班杜拉看到她便問她為甚麼回來,她解釋了其中的原因,班杜拉只好答應讓她留下。幾個月後,她懷了身孕。其後,她更十六次誕下男雙胞胎,即三十二個兒子。

有一日,班杜拉前往王宮,途中看到一些人在吵鬧,抗議官員貪污,沒有作出公正的審判。班杜拉重新對案件作出裁決,將犯人繩之於法,人們知道後十分高興。波斯匿王委任班杜拉為大法官。那些貪污的官員感到不滿,對班杜拉懷恨在心,設法陷害他,散播他想推翻波斯匿王的謠言。波斯匿王信以為真,決定殺死班杜拉和他的兒子。結果,班杜拉和三十二個兒子同被殺死。

在同一日,班杜拉家中正準備向佛陀、舍利弗和阿難陀等布施。僕人把字條交給她,告訴她的丈夫和兒子全被人殺害了。她知道後便把字條放入衣袋中,心境和行為沒受到影響,繼續布施的工作。一位女僕拿着一瓶酥油走過,不小心摔倒在地上,打碎了瓶子,酥油亦浪費了。舍利弗看到後安慰妻子,指所有東西都是會毀壞的。她聽到便把字條給舍利弗看,並告訴舍利弗自己在日常生活中修習佛法。

話說班杜拉妻子第一次懷孕的時候,她想前往毘舍離國的王家池塘沐浴。班杜拉夫婦兩人乘車到了毘舍離國,他在入城時沒有留意到昔日盲了眼的朋友。然而,他的朋友從聲音認出該人就是班杜拉。當毘舍離的士兵知道班杜拉在王家池塘沐浴,便前往追捕他,盲人勸告他們不要追趕。班杜拉對妻子說若追來的士兵排成一線便告訴自己,當這些士兵排成一線,班杜拉一箭射死所有的士兵。

後來波斯匿王知事實的真相。班杜拉妻子請求波斯匿王讓自己返回所屬的國家。波斯匿王對殺死班杜拉感到十分後悔,於是把將軍一職交由班杜拉的侄子。班杜拉的侄子對波斯匿王心存怨憤,想向他報復。

(篇幅太長,下回再說)

2011年8月11日星期四

Death takes the sensual unawares (II)

The man who gathers flowers (of sensual pleasure), whose mind is distracted, death carries off as a great flood sweeps away a sleeping village.

Ven. Nàrada, Dhammapada

Ven. Kakkapalliye Anuruddha Thera解釋了以上的偈誦。

採集花卉 (沉溺感官欲樂),心生染着的人,死亡就好像洪水一樣沉睡的村落。

這首偈誦與憍薩羅國、摩揭陀國、毘舍離國、迦毘羅衛國和末羅國有關。

摩訶憍薩羅 (Mahākosala) 是憍薩羅國王,他想與摩揭陀國聯婚,於是把妹妹嫁到摩揭陀。摩訶憍薩羅的兒子波斯匿王 (Pasenadi) 繼承王位,與摩揭陀國的頻婆娑羅 (Bimbisara) 是表兄弟。波斯匿王年青時到了學術城市呾叉始羅 (Takkasilā) 求學,在當地結識了來自毘舍離國和末羅國的學生。學成後各自回到所屬的國家,波斯匿王繼承王位,毘舍離國的學生獲國王賜城門附近的地方維生。

佛陀在憍薩羅國屋住。給孤獨長者 (Anathapindika) 和毘舎佉 (Visakha) 是當地著名的佛教徒,他們布施了很多東西給僧團,每早有很多比丘和比丘尼到他們的家中化食。波斯匿王觀察到這情況,便問大臣當中的原因。大臣回答是因為給孤獨長者和毘舎佉是非常虔誠的佛教徒,經常布施給僧團。波斯匿王想要結交佛陀,他邀請佛陀和比丘到王宮接受供養。供養後佛陀在王宮中說法。波斯匿王感到很喜悅,請求佛陀每日都到王官。佛陀表示要向其他人說法,不能接受他的邀請。波斯匿王唯有請佛陀委派一人到王宮。佛陀於是派阿難陀到王宮。

阿難陀和比丘們一連幾日到王宮接受供養,波斯匿王都有出席。但到了第八日,波斯匿王就失去興趣,沒有再來。當他們看不到波斯匿王便離開王宮,只有阿難陀留下。波斯匿王後來向佛陀說起該事,對比丘們沒有接受到供養便離開感到歉意。佛陀回答波斯匿王應讓比丘們對自己產生信任,正如他們對給孤獨長者和毘舎佉一樣。波斯匿王心想要令比丘們信任自己,決定要與釋迦族人聯婚,心想若自己娶一釋迦族女子,那樣他就成為佛陀的親戚。

波斯匿王派使臣到迦毘羅衛國提親。釋迦族人十分高傲,很着重種族血緣,看不起憍薩羅國。但由於憍薩羅國是強國,迦毘羅衛國不能拒絕波斯匿王。迦毘羅衛國的議會討論此事,打算在國內找個地位較低的少女嫁給波斯匿王,這女子的母親是一名僕人。波斯匿王與該少女後來生了一名兒子,稱為毘琉璃 (Viḍūḍabha)。

(篇幅太長,下回再說)

2011年8月9日星期二

Death takes the sensual unawares (I)

The man who gathers flowers (of sensual pleasure), whose mind is distracted, death carries off as a great flood sweeps away a sleeping village.

Ven. Nàrada, Dhammapada

Ven. Kakkapalliye Anuruddha Thera解釋了以上的偈誦。

採集花卉 (沉溺感官欲樂),心生染着的人,死亡就好像洪水一樣沉睡的村落。

死亡會把人沖往輪迴的大海。假如人要抵抗死亡,就應培育心,這便可打敗死亡。

法師先重溫了上一課的內容。

壽命 (span of life)、體溫和識 (viññāṇa) 決定了人生命的長短。人的壽命各有不同,正如樹上的果子,一些果子未成熟就掉下,一些成熟才掉下。人可能在少年時去世,也可能年老才去世。人的身體在固定的體溫,只要體溫仍存在,人便能活着。識是心中的意識,是心理活動的一種。若果這三樣東西都失去後,人就會死亡。人會積聚業力,各人都有所不同,業力會決定壽命。

佛教認為當胎兒在母親懷中開始孕育時,入胎識 (birth consciousness, paisandhi-citta) 亦隨之出現,人生的壽命經由前生的業力定下來。入胎識是受到死識 (death consciousness, cuti- viññāṇa) 的影響。假如死識是很強大的話,入胎識也會十分強大。識比喻為一條河流,它會延續,生命不斷的流轉,直到人覺悟人生的真諦,成為阿羅漢。

當人們看到嬰兒出生時,他們會感到高興。當人死亡時,人們會感到傷心。然而,他們不明白誕生和死亡只不過是一體的兩面 (two sides of the same coin)。重要的不是誕生或死亡,而是生命的過往在其中所作的行為。佛陀說人生很短,很快便到下一生,在這短暫的一生,人應做有益的事情,信奉宗教。

佛教徒不害怕死亡,因為他們明白人生的真諦。

(篇幅太長,下回再說)

第六章 佛教傳統中的肉類 15

Shravasti Dhammika, To EAT OR NOT TO EAT MEAT: A BUDDHIST REFLECTION

Chapter 6  Meat in the buddhist tradition

15.  Pious Burmese would never slaughter a large animal (cow or buffalo) but they think that killing small ones like fish, ducks or chickens is okay or that it only creates a manageable amount of negative vipaka. But they are happy to let the Muslims provide them with their beef and mutton and despise them for doing so. So it would seem that meat eating is an issue that all Buddhist schools are yet to intelligently, consistently and compassionately come to terms with.

達爾卡法師 著   伍煥炤 譯 :《吃肉還是不吃肉:佛教的反思》

第六章  佛教傳統中的肉類

15.   虔誠的緬甸人從不會屠宰體型大的動物 (母牛或水牛),但他們認為屠宰體型小的,例如魚、鴨或雞等則沒有問題,這樣產生的惡果能在控制範圍之內。他們樂意讓穆斯林為自己提供牛肉和羊肉,但同時又因此而蔑視他們。就吃肉這個議題,似乎所有佛教派別都未能理性、一致和慈悲為懷地面對。

* 歡迎轉載,但請註明出處和不改動譯文內容。

2011年8月8日星期一

第六章 佛教傳統中的肉類 14

Shravasti Dhammika, To EAT OR NOT TO EAT MEAT: A BUDDHIST REFLECTION

Chapter 6  Meat in the buddhist tradition

14.   Interestingly, soldiers, whose job was to kill humans, were never similarly ostracized. In Japan the burakumin were and still are treated as outcastes because they did slaughtering and other ‘unclean’ tasks. In Tibet a group of people called the ragyapa were likewise despised because they made their living as slaughter men and tanners and were relegated to the outskirts of towns where they lived in the most miserable conditions. I will stand being corrected here but I think ragyapa were not even allowed into temples. Even coracle men were likewise despised because their crafts were made of leather. Heinrich Harrer has some interesting comments on how the monastic hierarchy made these peoples’ lives difficult while benefiting from their services.

達爾卡法師 著   伍煥炤 譯 :《吃肉還是不吃肉:佛教的反思》

第六章  佛教傳統中的肉類

14.  有趣的是,以殺人為工作的士兵從沒有同樣被排擠。在日本,部落民 (burakumin) 仍被視為賤民,因為他們從事屠宰和其他「不潔」的工作。在西藏有些人被稱為熱甲巴 (ragyapa)他們也受人鄙視,因為他們以屠夫和製革工人的職業為生。他們被驅逐到市郊,居住在非常惡劣的環境。恕我直言,雖然別人不這樣認為,但我想熱甲巴甚至不准進入廟宇。製造小圓舟的工匠亦遭人鄙視,因為他們的製成品是以皮革製造的。海因里希‧哈勒(Heinrich Harrer)對寺院的統治階級如何使這些人的生活困苦,但同時從他們的服務中獲益作了有趣的評論。

* 歡迎轉載,但請註明出處和不改動譯文內容。

2011年8月5日星期五

第六章 佛教傳統中的肉類 13

Shravasti Dhammika, To EAT OR NOT TO EAT MEAT: A BUDDHIST REFLECTION

Chapter 6  Meat in the buddhist tradition

13.  Related to all this is a rather shameful hypocrisy that prevailed and indeed continues to linger in nearly all Buddhist lands, whether they be Theravada, Mahayana or Tibetan Buddhist. Butchers, leather-workers, hunters, fishermen and fowlers in Buddhist countries provided the community with various animal products including meat but were marginalized for doing so. Coastal-living fishermen in Sri Lanka were shunned by the majority and no monks ministered to their spiritual needs because they killed fish. Consequently these people were easily converted to Catholicism when the Portuguese arrived.

達爾卡法師 著   伍煥炤 譯 :《吃肉還是不吃肉:佛教的反思》

第六章  佛教傳統中的肉類

13.   與此相關的是一個頗為令人可恥的虛偽行為,而它仍然在差不多所有的佛教地方出現,無論是上座部、大乘或藏傳佛教。佛教國家的屠夫、皮革工人、獵人、漁民和捕獵野禽的人為社會提供各樣來自動物的產品,包括肉類,但他們卻因此受到人們的排擠。在斯里蘭卡岸邊生活的漁民由於捕殺魚類,因而被大眾避開,也沒有比丘照顧他們的精神需要。結果,當葡萄牙人來到的時候,他很容易被改變信仰,皈依了天主教。

* 歡迎轉載,但請註明出處和不改動譯文內容。

2011年8月4日星期四

Fortify your mind and be non-attached

Before long, alas! this body will lie upon the ground, cast aside, devoid of consciousness, even as a useless charred log.

Ven. Nàrada, Dhammapada

Ven. Kakkapalliye Anuruddha Thera解釋了以上的偈誦。

這個身體將會躺在地上,被拋棄在一旁,失去意識,就如無用的木頭。

人要具有意識才能生存,當人失去意識就等同木頭和其他物質一樣。

這首偈誦與一位患病的比丘有關。

有一日,佛陀在寺院遇到一位生病的比丘帝須 (Tissa)。帝須身上長出了瘡,躺在床上養病,房間發出陣陣的臭味,沒有人願意走進他的房間。佛陀走到帝須的房間,然後打水來為帝須清潔身體。這消息很快在寺院傳開,其他比丘也來探望帝須。佛陀吩咐他們清洗帝須的僧袍。

佛陀然後向比丘說法,指出「誰人照顧病人就等於照顧我,誰人照顧我就要照顧病人」。佛陀教導比丘們要照顧病人,這亦成為了僧團的傳統。當醫院的病人看到比丘,他們心中會感到安慰,因為比丘會與他們說話和給予祝福。

帝須的病情十分嚴重,佛陀於是向他說出以上的偈誦。佛陀說完法後,帝須帶着喜悅的心情去世。佛陀對比丘們說帝須在死前成為了阿羅漢,因為他在生前修習五根 (indriya) — 信 (saddha)、勤 (viriya)、念 (sati)、定 (samādhi) 和慧 (paññā)。

壽命 (span of life)、體溫和識 (viññāṇa) 決定了人生命的長短。業力決定壽命,然而我們不能知道業力的運作。若果這三樣東西都失去後,人便會死亡。正如樹上的果子,一些果子未成熟就掉下,一些成熟才掉下。人可能在少年時去世,也可能年老才去世。

第六章 佛教傳統中的肉類 12

Shravasti Dhammika, To EAT OR NOT TO EAT MEAT: A BUDDHIST REFLECTION

Chapter 6  Meat in the buddhist tradition

12.  Some years ago when I was staying at Bodhi Gaya, the Dalai Lama was due in a few days to give some talks and the town was filling up with Tibetans. A friend and I decided to get out of town for the duration to avoid the crowds. As we drove to Gaya we found the road blocked by a herd of a hundred or so buffaloes and goats being driven forward by several cowherds. Our driver hooted the horn, inched the car through the animals and when we got to one of the cowherds asked him where he was going with such a large number of animals. “To Bodh Gaya. They’re for the lamas,” he replied. One would think that the least they could do is abstain from meat while they are at such a sacred place receiving teachings that almost certainly included calls to have maha karuna for all beings. But no. The rimpoches must have their meat.

達爾卡法師 著   伍煥炤 譯 :《吃肉還是不吃肉:佛教的反思》

第六章  佛教傳統中的肉類

12.  幾年前我住在菩提伽耶的時候,適逢達賴喇嘛將會到來演講,整個市鎮擠滿了西藏人。我和朋友決定在這期間離開,以避開人群。當我們駕車到伽耶途中,道路被幾個牧人驅趕的上百隻水牛和山羊阻塞着。我們的司機鳴着汽車的喇叭,汽車從牲畜群中駛過。我們問其中一個牧人帶這麼多的牲畜往哪處。「到菩提伽耶,牠們都是給喇嘛的吃的。」他答道。人會想到在這神聖的地方接受教導,當中肯定包括呼籲對所有眾生持有大悲心,他們至少應該戒除吃肉。但事實並不如此,這些仁波切一定要吃肉。

* 歡迎轉載,但請註明出處和不改動譯文內容。

2011年8月3日星期三

第六章 佛教傳統中的肉類 11

Shravasti Dhammika, To EAT OR NOT TO EAT MEAT: A BUDDHIST REFLECTION

Chapter 6  Meat in the buddhist tradition

11.  Numerous ancient and modern commentaries on the Bodhicariyavatara linger with tear jerking emotion on Santideva’s aspiration to willingly give his life for others. The practice of “exchanging self with others” (paratma parivartana) forms an important element within the practices of all schools of Tibetan Buddhism. I won’t labor the point because I think you can see where this is going. Is there not a serious contradiction between the Tibetan Buddhist strong and persistent emphasis on compassion and the fact that they eat meat? I think there is. So Tibetan Buddhism may not be narrow and self-centered but it could be argued that it is hypocritical and inconsistent concerning meat eating.

達爾卡法師 著   伍煥炤 譯 :《吃肉還是不吃肉:佛教的反思》

第六章  佛教傳統中的肉類

11.  很多古今對《入菩薩行論》(Bodhicariyavatara) 的註釋,都是感情真摯地環繞寂天 (Santideva) 捨己為人的抱負。「自他交換」(paratma parivartana) 是所有藏傳佛教派別的重要元素。我不用探討這一點,因為我想你能看到這是怎麼回事。在藏傳佛教徒一貫強烈着重的慈悲和他們吃肉的事實之間,不是存有一個嚴重的矛盾嗎?我想是有的。或許藏傳佛教不是狹隘和自我中心,但可以證明它在吃肉方面是虛偽和前後矛盾的。

* 歡迎轉載,但請註明出處和不改動譯文內容。

2011年8月2日星期二

Fortify your mind and be non-attached

Realizing that this body is (as fragile) as a jar, establishing this mind (as firm) as a (fortified) city he should attack Mara with the weapon of wisdom. He should guard his conquest and be without attachment.

Ven. Nàrada, Dhammapada

Ven. Kakkapalliye Anuruddha Thera解釋了以上的偈誦。

明白到身體如陶罐般易碎,如防禦城堡般保護自己的心,以個人的智慧攻擊魔。他應捍衛自己的所征服的東西,但不要執着。

身體像其他物品一樣是無常的,會轉變和毀滅。

當我們得到一些成就後,心就會駐着在那些東西,佛陀教人不應執着。

智慧是很強大的武器,能摧毀心中的污染物。

魔 / 魔羅 (Māra) 具有像徵意義,它有五個意思。

  1. 五蘊魔 (Khandha Māra):人由色、受、想、行和識組成,當它們聚集時生命便開始,輪迴也出現。
  2. 煩惱魔 / 污染物 (Kilesa Māra):Kilesa是指心中的污染物。心有善和不善的質素,不善的東西就是污染物,例如貪、瞋、癡、妒忌和我慢等。
  3. 行魔 (Abhisankhāra Māra):Abhisankhāra指業力的積聚,業力是與輪迴有關。
  4. 死魔 (Maccu Māra):所有人都會死亡,人受到死亡的威脅。
  5. 天魔 (Devaputta Māra):天界的其中一個眾生。

這首偈誦與一些比丘有關。

王舍城和舍衛城各有一個著名的森林,比丘和比丘尼喜歡到這兩處進行修習。後來由於比丘尼在森林被人侵犯,因此佛陀禁止比丘尼在僻靜的地方修行。

一些比丘在森林修習。佛陀根據弟子的性格而給予不同的修習題目。古印度人相信大樹和高山有神靈存在。當比丘們開始修習時,這些樹神感到被人打擾。祂們以為這些比丘很快就會離開,但比丘們卻沒繼續在森林修行。樹神於是決定設法趕走他們,於是變化出各樣的幻象來騷擾他們。比丘們感到害怕,決定還回寺院,並把事情告訴佛陀。

佛陀說沒有其他適合修習的地方,當問題在那處產生,就應在該處解決,吩咐他們再到該森林修習。比丘們說這森林很可怕,不想再去。佛陀說他們第一次去的時候沒有帶任何武器,這次他會給他們一樣武器 —《慈心經》。《慈心經》(巴利文) 教人善待別人,不要做傷害別人的事情。

比丘們在森林誦起《慈心經》,樹神明白他們是好人,不會對自己造成傷害,因此不再騷擾他們。比丘們經修習後得到三明 (Tivijjā),即宿命明—知道生命的過去、天眼明—知道生命的將來、漏盡明—清除心中所有的污染物。

慈心能夠帶來十一種利益

  1. 舒適地入睡
  2. 舒適地醒來
  3. 不作惡夢
  4. 為人所愛
  5. 為非人所愛
  6. 天神守護
  7. 不被火、毒藥與刀劍所傷
  8. 心容易得定
  9. 相貌安詳
  10. 臨終不迷惑
  11. 若未能證得更高的成就 (阿羅漢果),他將投生梵天界

第六章 佛教傳統中的肉類 10

Shravasti Dhammika, To EAT OR NOT TO EAT MEAT: A BUDDHIST REFLECTION

Chapter 6  Meat in the buddhist tradition

10.  Vajrayana (I will use the term Tibetan Buddhism from now on) is another matter. Most Tibetan Buddhists - living Buddhas, manifestations of Manjusri, rimpoches and tulkus included, don’t just eat meat, they consume it with gusto. When I read works on Tibetan Buddhism I find the subject of compassion is nearly always mentioned somewhere; and so it should be. As if to emphasize its central position in Tibetan Buddhism, it is usually referred to not just as compassion but as ‘great compassion’ (maha karuna).

達爾卡法師 著   伍煥炤 譯 :《吃肉還是不吃肉:佛教的反思》

第六章  佛教傳統中的肉類

10.  金剛乘 (我由現在起使用「藏傳佛教」這名詞) 是另一樣事情。大多數的藏傳佛教徒 — 包括活佛、文殊師利的化身、仁波切和祖古不僅吃肉,還會吃得津津有味。當我閱讀有關藏傳佛教的著作時,我發現某些地方常提到慈悲的議題,而這樣做是應該的。似乎為了強調慈悲在藏傳佛教的中心地位,它通常不僅被稱為慈悲,而是「大悲心」(maha karuna)。

* 歡迎轉載,但請註明出處和不改動譯文內容。

2011年8月1日星期一

第六章 佛教傳統中的肉類 9

Shravasti Dhammika, To EAT OR NOT TO EAT MEAT: A BUDDHIST REFLECTION

Chapter 6  Meat in the buddhist tradition

9.  Even though a civilized humane society knows there will always be deaths from cancer, accidents, murder and other causes, it still feels it worthwhile to try to minimize such deaths. Can it regulate or protect its citizens from every possible life-threatening situation? No! But where it is feasible it does so and it does save many lives as a result. Will being vegetarian stop animals being killed? No! But it is one step I can take, a very simple step, a step that costs me nothing, which will diminish at least some of the great suffering in the world and my complicity in it.

達爾卡法師 著   伍煥炤 譯 :《吃肉還是不吃肉:佛教的反思》

第六章  佛教傳統中的肉類

9.   儘管文明仁愛的社會知道癌症、意外、謀殺和其他原因會導致死亡,它仍然認為嘗試減少這些死亡是值得的。社會能否監察或保護市民,避免每個可能危及生命的情況?不能夠!然而,它能在可行的地方作出行動,而這樣也確實挽救了很多生命。吃素能停止動物被屠宰嗎?不能夠!但這是我能踏出的一步,這步非常簡單,不會花費我任何金錢,它至少能減低世界上巨大的痛苦,以及我在當中的責任。

* 歡迎轉載,但請註明出處和不改動譯文內容。

2011年7月29日星期五

To the vigilant there is no fear

He whose mind is not steadfast, he who knows not the true doctrine, he whose confidence wavers - the wisdom of such a one will never be perfect.

He whose mind is not soaked (by lust) he who is not affected (by hatred), he who has transcended both good and evil - for such a vigilant one there is no fear.

Ven. Nàrada, Dhammapada

Ven. Kakkapalliye Anuruddha Thera解釋了以上的偈誦。

—個心不能安定的人,不可明白正法。—個信心不堅定的人,他的智慧不能成就。

一個心中沒有貪欲,不受瞋恚影響,超越善與惡,精進的人,心中不會有恐懼。

偈誦中的正法是指三十七道品,修習三十七道品能帶來智慧。超越善與惡是指不受業力的影響,成為了阿羅漢。

這首偈誦與一位多次出家和還俗的比丘有關。

舍衛城中有一名農夫,有一日他的牛走失了,他四處找尋也找不到。中午時,他感到很飢餓,看到附近有一間寺院,心想到寺院可得到些食物充饑。比丘們看到這名飢餓的人,便給了他一些食物。農夫吃飽後,心想這些比丘們每日都進食很好的食物,自己是個貧窮的人,若果加入僧團的話,就可每日都有東西吃,不用再挨餓。他於是向寺院的主持表示,自己對世俗的生活感到很洩氣,想出家為比丘。主持是一位慈悲的人,他吩咐比丘為這位農夫剃度為沙彌。

寺院的生活很繁忙,這位沙彌感到十分辛苦,雖然食物很好,但實在有太多的工作,因此決定還俗。回到家中後,當遇到一些挫折他又不高興,於是再到寺院出家。在往後的日子,由於這樣的原因,他六次出家,也六次還俗。最後,他感到妻子不關心自己,對在家生活感到很失望,決定這次出家後不會再還俗。主持吩咐一位比丘為他剃度,但這比丘說他沒有堅定的決心,不願為他剃度。主持說再給他一次機會,農夫亦表會精進修習。他這次真的立定決心,經修習後成為了阿羅漢。

他在寺院生活,一些年輕的比丘取笑他是否又準備還俗。他回答不會,因為這是最後一次,並說已經做了今生應做的事情。這些比丘明白到他已經成為阿羅漢,於是帶他前往見佛陀。佛陀說出了以上的偈誦。

第六章 佛教傳統中的肉類 8

Shravasti Dhammika, To EAT OR NOT TO EAT MEAT: A BUDDHIST REFLECTION

Chapter 6  Meat in the buddhist tradition

8.  However, such an argument embodies a narrow, disengaged and one-dimensional perspective rather typical of much Theravadin thinking. It is equivalent to saying, “People are going to die of cancer anyway so why bother discouraging smoking? People are going to be killed in accidents no matter what you do so why bother enacting safety regulations? Even though we have serious punishments for murder people still kill each other so what’s the point in criminalizing murder?”

達爾卡法師 著   伍煥炤 譯 :《吃肉還是不吃肉:佛教的反思》

第六章  佛教傳統中的肉類

8.  然而,這個論據包含了一種狹隘、抽離和片面的觀點,是頗為典型的上座部思想。這等於說:「反正人們會死於癌症,何必麻煩勸阻別人不吸煙?無論你做甚麼事情人們都會在意外中死亡,何必麻煩制訂安全規則?即使我們對謀殺罪有嚴厲的懲罰,人們還是會互相殺害,有甚麼理由要把謀殺定為犯法的行為?」

* 歡迎轉載,但請註明出處和不改動譯文內容。

2011年7月28日星期四

課程取消

收到志蓮夜書院的通知,Ven. Kakkapalliye Anuruddha Thera因病返回斯思蘭卡休養,今年《法句經》的課程會取消。法師生於1929年,現今已有82歲。去年底在歡送會上看到法師的精神還很好,希望他能早日恢復健康,再來香港弘揚佛法。

2011年7月26日星期二

第六章 佛教傳統中的肉類 7

Shravasti Dhammika, To EAT OR NOT TO EAT MEAT: A BUDDHIST REFLECTION

Chapter 6  Meat in the buddhist tradition

Recently a slightly more sophisticated argument has been used to justify meat eating in Theravada. The argument goes like this. “Whether or not you eat meat, animals will be killed, to clear forests for agricultural land, by spraying crops to protect them from insect pests, by damming rivers to generate electricity and by many other ways. Even when we drive our car insects are squashed against the windscreen and larger animals are killed as we drive past.” (Dhammavuddha Thera, The Buddha’s View on Meat Eating, 2008). All this is undoubtedly true.

達爾卡法師 著   伍煥炤 譯 :《吃肉還是不吃肉:佛教的反思》

第六章  佛教傳統中的肉類

最近出現一個較為精密的論據支持上座部吃肉的傳統。這個論據是這樣的:「無論你吃肉與否,動物亦會被殺死,例如在清除森林作農地、噴灑農藥來防治害蟲、在河流築壩生產電力和很多其他方面。甚至當我們駕駛汽車時,昆蟲會被擠壓在擋風玻璃,較大的動物則會被行駛的汽車撞死。」 (Dhammavuddha Thera, The Buddha’s View on Meat Eating, 2008年)。以上所說的都是毋庸置疑的。

* 歡迎轉載,但請註明出處和不改動譯文內容。

2011年7月25日星期一

第六章 佛教傳統中的肉類 6

Shravasti Dhammika, To EAT OR NOT TO EAT MEAT: A BUDDHIST REFLECTION

Chapter 6  Meat in the buddhist tradition

6. Another weakness in this argument is that it only relates to a tiny percentage of all Theravadins, i.e. monks. All too often Theravada discourse focuses on issues that are relevant to or are the concern of monks, leaving out the other 98% of people. What about lay people to whom neither this argument or the “I didn't see, hear or suspect” argument would be relevant? They don’t go begging and they are free to make choices about what they eat! Why can’t they be encouraged to be vegetarian? And if they were vegetarian they would offer vegetarian food to monks.

達爾卡法師 著   伍煥炤 譯 :《吃肉還是不吃肉:佛教的反思》

第六章  佛教傳統中的肉類

6.  這個論據的另一弱點是,它只與一小部份的上座部教徒,例如比丘有關。很多時上座部的論述集中在與比丘相關的議題,因而忽略了其他百份之九十八的人。哪麼在家人怎樣?他們與這個論據或「我看不到、聽不到,或甚至懷疑動物是為我而屠宰,因此我不會有麻煩」的論據沒有相干。他們不用化食,可自由選擇吃的食物!為甚麼不鼓勵他們做素食者?假如他們是素食者,他們便會提供素食給比丘。

* 歡迎轉載,但請註明出處和不改動譯文內容。

2011年7月22日星期五

第六章 佛教傳統中的肉類 5

Shravasti Dhammika, To EAT OR NOT TO EAT MEAT: A BUDDHIST REFLECTION

Chapter 6  Meat in the buddhist tradition

5. The other common justification for meat eating goes like this. “Monks get what they need by begging and should eat whatever they are given without picking and choosing.” Like quite a few other claims of Theravada, this explanation of the theory bears little resemblance to the reality. The reality is, and I’m probably revealing an insider’s secret here, that monks nearly always get exactly what they want. When the average monk wants something he simply buys it or when one of his supporters asks him what he needs he replies, “I need A, B and C.” The more scrupulous monks will resort to hints, a slightly changed expression or insinuations. Either way, lay people are more than happy to provide monks with all their needs and most of their wants as well, and if a monk wanted a vegetarian diet he would get it without any difficulty at all.

達爾卡法師 著   伍煥炤 譯 :《吃肉還是不吃肉:佛教的反思》

第六章  佛教傳統中的肉類

5.  另一個常見支持吃肉的理據就是,「比丘從化食中獲得東西,他們應該吃人們給予的任何食物,不應該挑三揀四。」與其他上座部所宣稱的一樣,這個理論的解釋與現實不太相符。我這裏可能透露了內幕秘密,其實比丘們大多能獲取他們想要的東西。當一般的比丘想要某些東西時,他可簡單地自行購買。又或當一位供養者詢問他的所需時,他可回答:「我需要A、B和C。」較謹慎的比丘會採取提示、稍為婉轉的方式,又或是暗示來回答。不管怎樣,在家人都很樂意為比丘提供所需,以及他們大多的想要的東西。假如一個比丘想要素食,他沒有任何困難便可得到。

* 歡迎轉載,但請註明出處和不改動譯文內容。

六星級骨灰龕

Shravasti Dhammika法師近日寫了篇有關到骨灰龕參觀的文章。這間骨灰龕以「六星級」設施自居,室內裝飾金碧輝煌,並配有激光雷射系統,營造出天界的氣氛,設計集傳統與現代於一身。這些都是該處的賣點,再加上以佛教包裝給人早登極樂的感覺,相信不少人會為之心動。龕位的價錢昂貴,最頂級的索價十萬新加坡幣。

文章提到兩幅有趣的圖書,一幅描繪摩耶夫人夢見一隻「非洲大象」,另一幅描繪佛陀途經一座「清真寺」。非洲象與印度象有不同的特徵,而伊斯蘭教則於公元六世紀才出現,與佛陀的年代相差近一千年。雖然不是所有人都能辦出以上的錯處,但若要以此作為賺錢的手段,加多點功夫考究也應該吧!

這種包裹佛教外衣,吹噓風水如何吉祥的商業活動在香港也甚為常見,成功之處就是看準華人的心理。很多的華人對佛教或道教都是一知半解,加上又相信風水命理,很容易就成為了商人牟利的對象。

2011年7月21日星期四

Free are they who have controlled their minds

Faring far, wandering alone, bodiless, lying in a cave, is the mind. Those who subdue it are freed from the bond of Mara.

Ven. Nàrada, Dhammapada

Ven. Kakkapalliye Anuruddha Thera解釋了以上的偈誦。

心飄盪遠處,單獨而行,無形無體,存在五蘊之中。調伏心的人能解脫魔的束縛。

這首偈誦與一名年輕的比丘有關。

僧珈邏仕達(Samgharakkhita)是一名阿羅漢,他想為村中的一名兒童剃度,於是告訴妹妹讓侄兒到寺院出家。妹妹答應了他的要求,兒子出家後取名僧珈邏仕達侄兒 (Samgharakkhita Bhagineyya)。

僧珈邏仕達侄兒到了一間寺院結夏安居,村民向他供養了兩件袈裟。後來僧珈邏仕達回到所屬的寺院,看到舅父回來,便倒水給他喝,並站在背後為他搧涼。

僧珈邏仕達侄兒告訴舅父得到兩件袈裟,想把其中一件送給他。僧珈邏仕達說已有足夠的僧袍,不需要多一件,吩咐侄兒自行留着。僧珈邏仕達侄兒堅持送一件給舅父,但再遭到拒絕,心中感到沮喪。他想起在出家前兩舅甥分享各樣物品,後來舅父成為自己的戒師。當他想到舅父不喜歡自己,留在寺院也沒有意思,決定還俗。他心想還俗後怎樣生活,因為他不懂任何的謀生方法。他想可把僧袍變賣,再娶妻生子。有一日,他會和妻子和兒子乘車往寺院探望舅父。他會叫妻子交兒子給自己抱,但她拒絕,結果兒子不幸跌在地上,更被牛車輾斃。他認為妻子害死兒子,心中生起怒火,拿起棍來打她。

僧珈邏仕達侄兒當時其實仍在為舅父搧涼,結果扇子打到頭舅父的頭。僧珈邏仕達侄一直觀察着侄兒的思緒,便說:「你用棍打妻子,為甚麼打我呢?」僧珈邏仕達侄兒感到很羞恥,明白舅父知道自己的想法,於是離開寺院,返回家中。

比丘們把僧珈邏仕達侄兒帶往見佛陀。佛陀知道他的情況後說出了以上的偈誦。

2011年7月20日星期三

第六章 佛教傳統中的肉類 4

Shravasti Dhammika, To EAT OR NOT TO EAT MEAT: A BUDDHIST REFLECTION

Chapter 6  Meat in the buddhist tradition

4. In fact, I have yet to find any Theravadin discourse on the vegetarian / meat eating debate which includes some discussion the effect that eating meat has on other beings, i.e. the animals being killed. The archetypal Theravadin is like the man who walks past someone whose life is in mortal danger without helping them. When asked why he didn’t help he says, “There is no penalty for not helping. So why should I?” In Theravada loving concern for others as described in the Metta Sutta and elsewhere, is too often left out of the equation. Perhaps too much of the focus is on the self.

達爾卡法師 著   伍煥炤 譯 :《吃肉還是不吃肉:佛教的反思》

第六章  佛教傳統中的肉類

4.  事實上,我還要找其他上座部關於素食和葷食辯論的論述,包括一些有關吃肉對其他眾生的影響,例如被屠宰的動物。典型的上座部教徒就好像遇到一個生命受到嚴重威脅的人,但他沒有伸出援手。當被問到為甚麼袖手旁觀時,他說:「不幫助是不會受罰的,因此,為甚麼我要這樣做?」上座部《慈心經》(Metta Sutta) 和其他地方對別人關愛的描述常被忽視,這可能是太多的注意集中在個人方面。

* 歡迎轉載,但請註明出處和不改動譯文內容。

2011年7月19日星期二

Guard your thoughts (II)

The mind is very hard to perceive, extremely subtle, flits wherever it listeth. Let the wise person guard it; a guarded mind is conducive to happiness.

Ven. Nàrada, Dhammapada

Ven. Kakkapalliye Anuruddha Thera解釋了以上的偈誦。

心很難察覺、極其微妙、跟隨喜惡變化。智者守護自己的心,被守護的心能帶來喜悅。

這首偈誦與一名比丘有關。

舍衛城有一名虔誠的佛教徒,差不多他每日都到寺院與比丘見面,然他是位富翁,但世俗生活為他帶來很多問題,於是想請教比丘快樂的方法。比丘教他供養僧團。富翁供養僧團後發覺沒有多大的轉變,便再問比丘要如何做。比丘教他佈施僧袍給比丘。他也跟着做了,但也不感到快樂。比丘再教他把財富分成三份,分別用來營商、生活和佈施。他依照比丘的指示,但煩惱沒有消失。比丘教他皈依三寶和遵守五戒,然後遵守八戒,最後出家為僧。他接受比丘的教導,最終出了家。

寺院提供教育給出家的比丘,他們會跟隨戒師和律師學習佛法和戒律。這初出家的比丘無法明白抽象的《阿毘達磨藏》(Abhidhamma),因而感到很沮喪。當他學習戒律時,他又不能明白。他開始想起自己是位富翁,由於不愉快的世俗生活而出家,但現在的生活也未能帶來快樂,打算還俗。

有一日,他準備離開寺院,結果給其他看到,並把他帶往見佛陀。佛陀教他忘記學習的知識,吩咐他嘗試守護自己的心便足夠。佛陀接着教導他修習的方法,透過止觀 (Samatha) 使心集中起來,不受世俗的問題影響。然後修習內觀 (Vipassanā),最後證得真理。

2011年7月18日星期一

Guard your thoughts (I)

The mind is very hard to perceive, extremely subtle, flits wherever it listeth. Let the wise person guard it; a guarded mind is conducive to happiness.

Ven. Nàrada, Dhammapada

Ven. Kakkapalliye Anuruddha Thera解釋了以上的偈誦。

心很難察覺、極其微妙、跟隨喜惡變化。智者守護自己的心,被守護的心能帶來喜悅。

為了守護自己的心,正念 (sati / mindfulness) 十分重要。沒有正念的話,就不能控制感官—眼、耳、鼻、舌、身、意。只要我們仍活着,感官便會一直運作,甚至當睡覺時心仍會活動。感官的作用是為心提供糧食,當我們張開眼睛,我們能看到四月的事物,色塵 (visual object) 會透過眼傳到心,心就會集中在它上面。

一顆未經培育的心會受到貪、瞋、癡的影響,它們也是心的特徵。當看到一樣美麗的事物,心會被吸引。佛陀教人在遵守道德操守 / 戒律後,應嘗試控制自己的感官。人若遵從道德,他在社會的行為便會端正。我們不可讓感官為所欲為,透過正念就能控制感官,守護心可帶來快樂。當人臨終前,眼的已經不能看到東西,又或耳聽不到聲音,然而心仍活着,因為心儲存了大量的食物,直到所有食物用完人才會死亡。

佛教把正念比喻為大象的腳印,所有其他生物的腳印都能放在大象的腳印內。

(篇幅太長,下回再說)

2011年7月15日星期五

Control your mind (II)

The mind is hard to check, swift, flits wherever it listeth: to control it is good. A controlled mind is conducive to happiness.

Ven. Nàrada, Dhammapada

Ven. Kakkapalliye Anuruddha Thera解釋了以上的偈誦。

心是很難控制的、快速轉動、跟隨喜惡變化。調伏心是好的,調伏的心能帶來喜悅。

正念 (sati) 是正定 (samādhi) 的前提。修習時要把心專注十分困難,心是很難調伏的。《念住經》(Satipaṭṭhāna Sutta) 提到觀想 (observe) 身、受、心、法,四者連結起來,不能分割。觀想身最基礎的修習方法,觀想是純粹的觀察,不加任何的評價,不生起任何的感覺。觀身可用數出入息的方法,因為呼吸與身體有正接的關係,可從中觀察身體的狀況。

一般在家的佛教徒平日遵守五戒—不殺生、不偷盜、不淫邪、不妄語、不飲酒。在一些吉祥的日子,他們會到寺院遵守八戒,在五戒外加上不着華鬘香油塗身和不歌舞觀聽、不坐臥高廣大床、不非時食。他們在寺院會修習不淨觀。

老婦問比丘們在茅屋內做甚麼。比丘們告訴老婦他們正在修習不淨觀,透過止觀使心專注,然後他們便會修習無常想,這亦即是內觀。老婦問普通人能否修習不淨觀。比丘們回答修習並不限於出家人。老婦聽到後請比丘們教她修習的方法。

老婦開始按比丘們的教導進行修習,很快成為了四果聖人中的不還果 (三果)。四果聖人是指入流果 (初果 Sotāpanna)、一還果 (二果 Sakadāgāmī)、不還果 (三果 Anāgāmī) 和阿羅漢 (四果Arahant)。

  • 入流果:消除我見、疑惑、戒取
  • 一還果:削弱欲貪和瞋恚
  • 不還果:消除欲貪和瞋恚
  • 阿羅漢:消除色界貪、無色界貪、慢、掉舉和無明

老婦同時得到神通—天眼通 (Dibba-cakkhu) 和他心通 (ceto-pariya-ñāṇa) 。天眼通能看到遙遠地方的事物,而他心通則能讀取別人思想。有一日,她運用神通,看到比丘們正在修習,發現他們雖然十分精進,但未有任何的成續。她發現原來他們沒足夠的食物,因此身體較為虛弱,導致心不能專注起來。為了幫助他們,她送來多一點的食物。體力恢復後,他們的修習取得成果,成為了阿羅漢。

比丘們向老婦告辭,回舍衛城見佛陀。他們向佛陀報告因得到老婦的幫助,所以能成為阿羅漢。一名寺院中的比丘聽到他們的談話,心想若自己到那條村落修習的話也能取得一些成績,於是他向佛陀請示修習的題目,然後前往該處地方。

當他來到這村落後,村民安排他住在茅屋內。他心想現在已經夜深,身體又疲倦,不想打掃茅屋,決定先睡覺。老婦運用他心通,知道這名比丘的想法,於是派人前往打掃他的茅屋。早上,比丘想吃些好的東西作早餐。老婦知道後吩咐人送來食物。幾次後,他知道老婦擁有神通,害怕心中不善的思想被老婦知道,決定返回寺院。

比丘把老婦擁有神通一事告訴佛陀。佛陀指示他返回該村落,因為該處是對他最適合修習的地方,因為問題在哪裏出現,就應在同一地方解決。比丘不希望回去。佛陀問他能否保護心不被外來的危險侵襲。比丘說他會嘗試。佛陀最後說出了以上的偈誦。

2011年7月14日星期四

第六章 佛教傳統中的肉類 3

Shravasti Dhammika, To EAT OR NOT TO EAT MEAT: A BUDDHIST REFLECTION

Chapter 6  Meat in the buddhist tradition

There are three Theravadin justifications for eating meat. We have already discussed the “I didn't see, hear or suspect that the animal was killed for me so I’m off the hook” argument. The next common justification for meat eating, that it does not create negative kamma, is indicative of Theravada’s tendency towards narrowness and self-absorption. I do not mean this comment to be sarcastic. I am just pointing out a fact. In a survey I did of 16 Theravadin books and articles on vegetarianism or sections from Theravadin books discussing the subject, this was the only argument used - that the person who eats the meat, does not create any bad kamma for himself or herself.

達爾卡法師 著   伍煥炤 譯 :《吃肉還是不吃肉:佛教的反思》

第六章  佛教傳統中的肉類

上座部有三個支持吃肉的理據。我們已經討論了「我看不到、聽不到,或甚至懷疑動物是為我而屠宰,因此我不會有麻煩」的論據。第二個支持吃肉的理據是吃肉不會產生惡業,這點顯示上座部佛教傾於狹隘和自我陶醉。我的評論是無意嘲笑的,而只是指出事實。我研究了十六本上座部有關素食的書籍和文章,或上座部書籍討論有關議題的章節,這是唯一使用的理據 — 就是吃肉的人不會對自己造成惡業。

* 歡迎轉載,但請註明出處和不改動譯文內容。

Control your mind (I)

The mind is hard to check, swift, flits wherever it listeth: to control it is good. A controlled mind is conducive to happiness.

Ven. Nàrada, Dhammapada

Ven. Kakkapalliye Anuruddha Thera解釋了以上的偈誦。

心是很難控制的、快速轉動、跟隨喜惡變化。調伏心是好的,調伏的心能帶來喜悅。

這首偈誦與一些比丘有關。

舍衛城有一座山,山上住了六十位比丘。有一日,他們前往見佛陀,向佛陀請示修習的題目。佛陀是一位偉大的導師,精於修習。佛教中有很多的修習題目,有經驗的導師會根據修習者的性格選擇合適的題目。修習者有不同的性格,一些屬於虔誠類別,他們心中充滿信。一些屬知識份子類。一些人的瞋心較重,很容易發怒。

佛陀給了他們修習的題目。他們去到寧靜的郊區進行修習,遠離煩囂的城市。聲音會影響修習,因此僻靜的地方才適宜。早上,比丘們到村內化食。村內一位老婦很開心見到他們,在供養後便問他們需要甚麼東西。比丘們說正在找尋適合修習的地方。老婦聽到後請他們留在村內,願意為他們提供住宿和日常所需。比丘們各自住在茅屋內,自行修習,早上化食和晚上才聚會。

有一日,老婦來探望這些比丘,看見他們沒有在一起,懷疑他們是否發生爭執。她問村民比丘們到了哪處。村民回答他們正在各自修習。她又問怎樣才能見到他們。村民說敲響鐘他們便會出來。當她敲響鐘後,比丘們便走出自己的茅屋。老婦問比丘們平日沒有聚集一起,是否發生爭執。比丘們回答這是他們修習時的習慣。

(篇幅太長,下回再說)

2011年7月13日星期三

Straighten your fickle mind (II)

The flickering, fickle mind, difficult to guard, difficult to control - the wise person straightens it as a fletcher straightens an arrow.

Like a fish that is drawn from its watery abode and thrown upon land, even so does this mind flutter. Hence should the realm of the passions be shunned. 

Ven. Nàrada, Dhammapada

Ven. Kakkapalliye Anuruddha Thera解釋了以上的偈誦。

心是閃爍易變、搖擺不穩、難以守護和難以控制的。智者像造箭者拉直弓箭般調伏心。

就好像被拋在地上的魚不停地顫動,心也同樣的跳動。污染心的東西應該被清除。

佛陀向解釋彌醯修習如何才能取得成果 (Meghiya Sutta)。

(一) 有善知識 (Kalyāṇa-mittatā) 的指導,自行修習容易造成墮入歧途。善知識應是個和藹的人,得到修習者的敬重,能夠給予修習者意見,性格寬容。

(二) 修習者要有良好的德行,遵守五戒 — 不殺生、不偷盜、不邪淫、不妄語和不飲酒。當人注重道德,他面對的社會問題就會減少。

(三) 善知識會教導修習者以下幾點:

  • 簡樸生活
  • 知足
  • 獨處
  • 不被事物糾纏
  • 精進
  • 德行 / 戒律
  • 禪定
  • 智慧的重要
  • 心的解脫
  • 解脫之見

(四) 堅定精進

(五) 明白無常的道理

佛陀教導彌醯消除各種污染的方法。對於感官欲樂,可修習不淨觀,觀想身體為三十二份,便能明白美麗的概念只是幻象。對於憤怒,可修習慈心。對於思緒散亂可修習出入息念 (Ānāpānasati)。對於我慢,可修習無常想。修習無常想時,人就能消除我慢,這亦是苦的盡頭。

修習有兩個目的。第一個目的是使心止息和集中起來,停止纏繞心中的煩惱,修習者可修習止觀 (Samatha)。第二個目的是領悟生命的真諦,修習者可修習內觀 (Vipassanā)。當心止息下來,修習者可繼續修習無常想,從而明白事物的實相。佛陀明白事物無常的道理,在他之前印度沒有人談及無常的觀念。佛教認為世間的事物都是互相依緣的,沒有一樣事物可獨立存在。

四聖諦 (Cattāri Ariyasaccāni):

  • 苦 (Dukkha)
  • 集 (Dukkha Samudaya):苦的成因
  • 滅 (Dukkha Nirodha):苦的止息—涅槃
  • 道 (Dukkha Nirodha Gamini Patipada Magga):止息苦的道路

苦的意思是無常,所有轉變的事物都是苦的,苦不單只是痛苦或受苦。欲念是推動轉變的動力,當欲念止息,喜悅就會生起,亦即是滅。八正道 (Aṭṭhaṅgika magga) 是止息苦的道路,能帶人到涅槃的境界。

  • 正見 sammā diṭṭhi
  • 正思維 sammā saṅkappa
  • 正語 sammā vācā
  • 正業 sammā kammanta
  • 正命 sammā ājῑva
  • 正精進 sammā vāyāma
  • 正念 sammā sati
  • 正定 sammā samādhi

2011年7月12日星期二

The Sigalovada in Pictures

intoxiciant

There are six perils from addiction to intoxicants:

  • actual loss of wealth
  • loss of good character
  • increase of quarrels
  • indecent exposure
  • susceptibility to disease
  • impaired intelligence
The Sigalovada in Pictures: A Pictorial Presentation of the Advice to Sigala

Compiled by Ven. K. Dhammasiri, Art by K. W. Janaranjara.

Straighten your fickle mind (I)

The flickering, fickle mind, difficult to guard, difficult to control - the wise person straightens it as a fletcher straightens an arrow.

Like a fish that is drawn from its watery abode and thrown upon land, even so does this mind flutter. Hence should the realm of the passions be shunned. 

Ven. Nàrada, Dhammapada

Ven. Kakkapalliye Anuruddha Thera解釋了以上的偈誦。

心是閃爍易變、搖擺不穩、難以守護和難以控制的。智者像造箭者拉直弓箭般調伏心。

就好像被拋在地上的魚不停地顫動,心也同樣的跳動。污染心的東西應該被清除。

在巴利文中,citta, mano和viññāṇa都是用作形容心。citta (心) 是一種狀態。mano (意) 指心的活動,亦即是思考。viññāṇa (識) 是潛藏的意識,具有辨別事物的能力。當外來物件進入眼中,識便會出現,稍後心會分析該物件,這即是心的活動,對它的認識會增加。

人的心中有善和不善的質素,人應設法調伏自己的心,去除貪、瞋、癡、忌妒、吝嗇、放逸和我慢等各樣污染心的東西。我慢有量度的意思,是一種以自我為中心的思想行為,以自己作標準來和別人比較。

當消除不善的質素後,心便只剩下好的質素。污染的東西很難除去,但可透過禪修的修習來達到。禪修把心境集中在好的事物,不讓它散亂。禪修很困難,但是可以做到的。當心集中時就能發揮很大的力量,智慧亦隨之生起。

這首偈誦與一名稱為彌醯 (Meghiya) 的比丘有關。

彌醯是佛陀的侍者。有一次,佛陀和彌醯在山上居住,彌醯前往村中化食,回途經過河邊,看到一個芒果園,被它美麗的環境吸引着。彌醯向佛陀說希望到芒果園禪修。佛陀吩咐他再等一會,但彌醯再三表明要前往修習,並不悅地對佛陀說:「你已經完成了自己的工作,而我還有很多事情要做,我要對自己的生命負責,需要進行修習。」佛陀聽到這說話後就讓他前往芒果園。

彌醯在芒果園進行修習,心中被壓抑的思緒開始湧現出來,生起感官貪欲、憤怒和暴力的思緒,令他無法集中。佛陀在覺悟前,心中同樣心泛起了一些不善的思緒,不同之處是佛陀能戰勝它們。

彌醯回去向佛陀報告他修習時遇到的問題。

(篇幅太長,下回再說)

2011年7月11日星期一

第六章 佛教傳統中的肉類 2

Shravasti Dhammika, To EAT OR NOT TO EAT MEAT: A BUDDHIST REFLECTION

Chapter 6  Meat in the buddhist tradition

2. Some Mahayana texts advocate vegetarianism, although only a few, and all Chinese and Korean monks and nuns and the more devout lay people are usually strictly vegetarian. Many other Chinese and Korean lay people will be vegetarian at least on certain holy days. Vajrayana texts do not advocate abstaining from meat, indeed some specifically endorse and even encourage it. Vegetarianism is rare in Bhutan, Tibet, Mongolia and also in Japan.

達爾卡法師 著   伍煥炤 譯 :《吃肉還是不吃肉:佛教的反思》

第六章  佛教傳統中的肉類

2. 部份大乘佛經提倡素食主義,雖然數量很少。所有中國和韓國的比丘和比丘尼,以及較虔誠的信眾大多是嚴格的素食者。很多其他中國和韓國的信眾至少在某些宗教節日奉行素食。金剛乘的佛經沒有提倡戒除肉類,事實上一些更明確贊同,甚至鼓勵吃肉。素食主義在不丹、西藏、蒙古和日本都是罕見的。

* 歡迎轉載,但請註明出處和不改動譯文內容。

2011年7月8日星期五

釜山梵魚寺

IMG_0652 IMG_0654 IMG_0660 IMG_0671IMG_0692 IMG_0681  IMG_0680 IMG_0707 IMG_0720 IMG_0729 IMG_0701 IMG_0711

第六章 佛教傳統中的肉類 2

Shravasti Dhammika, To EAT OR NOT TO EAT MEAT: A BUDDHIST REFLECTION

Chapter 6  Meat in the buddhist tradition

2. Some Mahayana texts advocate vegetarianism, although only a few, and all Chinese and Korean monks and nuns and the more devout lay people are usually strictly vegetarian. Many other Chinese and Korean lay people will be vegetarian at least on certain holy days. Vajrayana texts do not advocate abstaining from meat, indeed some specifically endorse and even encourage it. Vegetarianism is rare in Bhutan, Tibet, Mongolia and also in Japan.

達爾卡法師 著   伍煥炤 譯 :《吃肉還是不吃肉:佛教的反思》

第六章  佛教傳統中的肉類

2.  部份大乘佛經提倡素食主義,雖然數量很少。所有中國和韓國的比丘和比丘尼,以及較虔誠的信眾大多是嚴格的素食者。很多其他中國和韓國的信眾至少在某些宗教節日奉行素食。金剛乘的佛經沒有提倡戒除肉類,事實上一些更明確贊同,甚至鼓勵吃肉。素食主義在不丹、西藏、蒙古和日本都是罕見的。

* 歡迎轉載,但請註明出處和不改動譯文內容。

2011年7月6日星期三

第六章 佛教傳統中的肉類 1

Shravasti Dhammika, To EAT OR NOT TO EAT MEAT: A BUDDHIST REFLECTION

Chapter 6  Meat in the buddhist tradition

1. Now I would like to examine different Buddhist attitudes to vegetarianism. The simplistic picture - Hinayanists (Theravadins) eat meat and Mahayanists don’t - does not reflect reality. Although the Theravada interpretation of the Pali Tipitaka does not require vegetarianism, many Sri Lankans do not eat meat. Many will eat fish but not meat and many others will shun beef while eating other types of meat. Vegetarianism is uncommon in Burma, Thailand, Laos and Cambodia.

達爾卡法師 著   伍煥炤 譯 :《吃肉還是不吃肉:佛教的反思》

第六章  佛教傳統中的肉類

1.  現在我會研究佛教對素食主義的不同態度。簡單化的描述 — 小乘 (上座部) 佛教的僧侶是吃肉的,而大乘佛教的僧侶則不吃肉 — 並不能反映現實。雖然上座部對巴利文《大藏經》的闡述沒有要奉行素食主義,但很多的斯里蘭卡人都不吃肉。很多人會吃魚,但不吃肉類。很多其他人避免吃牛肉,但吃其他類別的肉的。素食主義在緬甸、泰國、老撾和柬埔寨並不普遍。

* 歡迎轉載,但請註明出處和不改動譯文內容。

2011年7月5日星期二

第五章 有問題的素食者 8

Shravasti Dhammika, To EAT OR NOT TO EAT MEAT: A BUDDHIST REFLECTION

Chapter 5  The problematic vegetarian

8. I’d have to say that some other vegetarians I have encountered suffer from a similar lopsidedness - a near obsession with meat and its consumption and virtually no interest in any other kind of cruelty to animals or a carelessness towards the environment in which they live. For many people, just not eating meat is enough - and from a Buddhist perspective it is not enough. You could be a scrupulous vegetarian and at the same time be thoughtless, unkind and uncaring about other beings. Vegetarianism is good, but if it does not go hand in hand with a compassionate regard for all human and animal life it’s just another food fad. So if you are going to be a vegetarian be an intelligent one.

達爾卡法師 著   伍煥炤 譯 :《吃肉還是不吃肉:佛教的反思》

第五章  有問題的素食者

8.  其他一些我曾接觸過的素食者也有類似的偏頗 — 對肉類和其食用近乎癡迷,但卻對動物所受的任何殘酷行為簡直漠不關心,又或是對牠們的生活環境粗心大意。對很多人來說,不吃肉已經足夠 — 從佛教的角度這是不夠的。你可能是個謹慎的素食者,卻同時輕率、刻薄和冷漠地對待其他眾生。素食主義是好的,但如果不配合慈悲對待人和動物的生命,這不過是一種食物一時的風尚。因此,假如你要做一個素食者,就要做個理性的。

* 歡迎轉載,但請註明出處和不改動譯文內容。

2011年7月4日星期一

第五章 有問題的素食者 7

Shravasti Dhammika, To EAT OR NOT TO EAT MEAT: A BUDDHIST REFLECTION

Chapter 5  The problematic vegetarian

7.  As in Taiwanese homes, so too in Taiwanese monasteries. In one monastery I saw two adult Alsatians locked in a cage barely big enough for them to turn around and in the three weeks I was at this place they were never let out once. Worse still, the abbot of this temple, a rather formidable man, was well-known as an outspoken and crusading advocate of, you guessed it, strict vegetarianism - no milk, no eggs, no animal products at all. Both his Alsatians suffered from severe rickets because being a vegan himself the abbot had imposed his fetish on his dogs when they were puppies by refusing to feed them milk or meat and thus causing their legs to be all bowed and bent. Having said all this I should point out that generally I was impressed by the vigor of Buddhism in Taiwan and that the country has an active animal rights movement. My problem was only with the way some Taiwanese Buddhist practiced vegetarianism.

達爾卡法師 著   伍煥炤 譯 :《吃肉還是不吃肉:佛教的反思》

第五章  有問題的素食者

7.  台灣家庭和寺院的情況一樣。在一座寺院內,我看到兩頭成年的阿爾薩斯牧羊犬被鎖在籠子,籠子的面積只夠牠們轉身。我在寺院的三個星期,牠們都未曾被放出籠子。更可怕的是,寺院的住持是位頗令人欽佩的人,你可估計到他是一位坦率和義正辭嚴提倡嚴格素食主義的人 — 全戒除牛奶、雞蛋和動物產品。他亦因此而聞名。然而,他的阿爾薩斯牧羊犬卻患上嚴重的佝僂病。由於住持是一位純素食主義者,他把自己的對素食主義的固執強加於狗隻的身上,拒絕給牠們餵飼牛奶或肉類,結果導致牠們的腳彎曲。說了這麼多我會指出,普遍來說我對台灣佛教的強大,以及當地積極的動物權益運動留下深刻的印象。我的問題只是針對一些台灣佛教徒奉行素食主義的方式。

* 歡迎轉載,但請註明出處和不改動譯文內容。

2011年6月27日星期一

第五章 有問題的素食者 6

Shravasti Dhammika, To EAT OR NOT TO EAT MEAT: A BUDDHIST REFLECTION

Chapter 5  The problematic vegetarian

6. But by far the worst thing I saw in Taiwan was the attitude towards pets. The Taiwanese are busy absorbing Western middle-class values and tastes but like all new-comers they still haven't got it quite right. So, for example, everyone wants a fluffy adorable puppy, kitten or bunny but they are not yet schooled in what to do with them once they get them. Three months later or when the animal has grown up and is no longer cute, they lose interest in it. This is particularly true of dogs who are often confined in tiny cages. Some of these caged dogs are put at front gates of peoples’ homes so they will bark when anyone comes. I recall looking down several streets and seeing one of these tiny cages at nearly every gate and hearing their occupants howling with boredom, barking incessantly and whimpering for attention.

達爾卡法師 著   伍煥炤 譯 :《吃肉還是不吃肉:佛教的反思》

第五章  有問題的素食者

6. 但到目前為止,我在台灣看過最惡劣的事情是人們對待寵物的態度。台灣人忙碌吸收西方中產階級的價值觀和品味,然而,正如所有的初學者,他們仍未能正確掌握所學的東西。因此,例如每個人都想擁有一隻毛髮蓬鬆和可愛的小狗、小貓或兔子,但他們未有學習怎樣照顧牠們。三個月後或當寵物長大不再可愛時,他們便會對寵物失去興趣。這情況在狗隻身上尤為常見,牠們常被關入細小的籠中。一些關在籠子的狗隻被放在房屋的前門,當任何人走近牠們便會吠叫。我記起看過幾條街道,幾乎每道大門都放着這些小籠子,籠中的狗隻無聊地咆哮,不停地吠叫和悲嗥,以喚起人們的注意。

* 歡迎轉載,但請註明出處和不改動譯文內容。

2011年6月21日星期二

第五章 有問題的素食者 5

Shravasti Dhammika, To EAT OR NOT TO EAT MEAT: A BUDDHIST REFLECTION

Chapter 5  The problematic vegetarian

One incredibly lavish monastery I visited had five such sets in the visitor’s hall and one in the vestibule of each monk’s room. Another must-have I noticed in many temples is huge, twisted, gnarled tree trunks, sometimes including the roots, with Bodhidhamma, Kuan Yin or lohans carved into them. None of the gung-ho vegetarian monks I met seemed particularly concerned about their role in decimating Taiwan’s ancient forests by having these beautiful but completely unnecessary and destructive luxuries. It seemed to be that eating meat was unforgivable but stripping the forests of their trees and having silk worms boiled alive was okay.

達爾卡法師 著   伍煥炤 譯 :《吃肉還是不吃肉:佛教的反思》

第五章  有問題的素食者

我曾到過一座奢華得令人難以置信的寺院,客廳擺放着五套這種傢具,而各比丘房間的前廳亦各有一套。我在很多寺廟發現另一樣必備的東西,就是雕刻上菩提達摩、觀音或羅漢的巨大扭曲的粗糙樹幹,有時候還包括樹根。這些美麗但完全沒有必要和破壞性的奢侈品,大規模地毀滅台灣的古森林,我從沒有遇上一個熱心的素食者特別關注自己在當中的角色。這似乎是吃肉是不可原諒,但砍伐森林的樹木和活煮蠶蟲卻是可以的。

* 歡迎轉載,但請註明出處和不改動譯文內容。