2011年12月6日星期二

The Buddhist Precepts IV (佛教戒律 IV)

Shravasti Dhammika, The Buddhist Precepts IV

達爾卡法師 著   伍煥炤 譯 :〈佛教戒律 IV〉

The last of the eight Precepts and the ninth of the ten Precepts say that one should abstain from using high (ucca) or large (maha) seats and couches. Some people are perplexed by this rule and wonder what it has to do with morality or the training of the mind. Of course it has nothing to do with morality. Only the first five Precepts pertain to moral behaviour and are kammically significant. The other Precepts, including the one about seats and couches, are ways of behaving that can assist in calming the mind and shaping character. In ancient India, and even in the modern world, sitting on an elevated or grand chair was a sign of power and status. Monarchs, judges, lecturers, managing directors, the speaker of parliament, etc, all have special high seats. To practice the eighth Precept is to relinquish, not display or take advantage of one's social status, at least for a day. Practising the eighth Precept is about modesty, diminishing the ego and refraining from putting oneself on a pedestal.

八戒的最後一條和十戒的第九條戒律說人應避免使用高 (ucca) 和大 (maha) 的椅和床。一些人對這戒律感到疑惑,想知這它與道德和心的培育有甚麼關係。當然它與道德無關。只有五戒涉及道德行為和在業力方面需要注意,其他戒律包括有關椅和床的,都是幫助使心止息和塑造品格的方法。在古印度,甚至現今世界,坐在高和華麗的椅子是權力和地位的象徵。國王、法官、講演者、總經理和國會讓長等全部有高的座椅。踐行八戒是至少一日放棄、不展示和利用個人的社會地位。踐行八戒涉及謙遜,削弱自我和避免把自己抬得高高在上。

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The picture shows a baby breaking the eighth Precept
這幅圖顯示一個違反了第八條戒律的嬰兒

2011年11月30日星期三

The Buddhist Precepts III (〈佛教戒律 III〉)

Shravasti Dhammika, The Buddhist Precepts III

達爾卡法師 著   伍煥炤 譯 :〈佛教戒律 III〉

The sixth of the eight Precepts and ten Precepts is Vikala bhojana vermani sikkhapadam samadhiami, I take the precept not to eat at the wrong time. 'Wrong time' (vikala) has long been interpreted to mean after noon or midday, although I know of no place in the suttas where this is specifically stated. The overall purpose of this rule is clear enough – to encourage moderation in eating (Sn.707) and to keep drowsiness due to a full stomach at bay. But the part about not eating after midday is less clear. The origin story in the Vinaya explaining this rule is unconvincing and obviously a later invention. According to this story, a monk was standing at someone's door late at night. As the woman of the house approached the door a sudden flash of lightening illuminated him, frightening the woman half to death, and to prevent this from happening again the Buddha instituted the rule. The only justification the Buddha gives for this rule is that it is good for the health and he does not mention what the 'wrong time' is other than to say the 'evening' or 'night' (ratti). He said, 'I do not eat in the evening and thus I am free from illness and affliction and enjoy health, strength and ease' (M.I, 473). But I can see no reason why eating only in the morning should be any more or less healthy than eating only in the afternoon.

八戒中的第六戒是Vikala bhojana vermani sikkhapadam samadhiami,我遵守戒律不會在不適當的時間進食。雖然我在佛經中找不到特別提及「非時」(vikala) 的地方,但它長久以來都解作過了正午或中午。這條戒律整體的目的是十分清晰的 — 鼓勵節制飲食 (Sn.707) 和避免因滿腹而昏睡。有關午後不進食的部份則不太清晰,《律藏》中解這條戒律來歷的故事並不具說服力,顯然是後來加上的。根據這個故事,一位比丘在晚上站在一家人的門前,一位該戶家庭的女人走近門前,突然而來的閃電照出了他的樣貌,把她嚇得半死。為避免同樣的事情再發生,佛陀制訂了這條戒律。佛陀制訂這戒律的唯一理據是它有益健康,但他沒有提到「非時」是甚麼,只說了「傍晚」或「晚上」(ratti)。他說:「我不在傍晚步進食,因此我會遠離疾病和痛苦,得到健康、力量和安樂」(M.I, 473)。但我看不到只在早上進食是比只在下午進食不健康或更健康。

I suspect that the rule has its origins in two things. That eating before noon was already a well-established convention amongst wandering ascetics and the Buddha simply asked his monks and nuns to follow this convention. And the reason why this convention evolved in the first place was probably because, then as now, Indian peasant women cooked all the day's food early in the morning and the main meal of the day was in the morning. In other words, the most convenient time to go for alms gathering (pindapata) was in the morning. Noon was probably used as the cut-off point for eating because it could be known exactly. It's also pretty certain that monks and nuns only eat one meal a day because, not doing hard physical labour, they did not need that much food. So it is important to understand that noon is not some magical time, after which consuming food becomes a serious moral failing. It is just a convenient, and at that time a practical, way of dividing the day.clip_image001

我懷疑這條戒律是源自兩樣事情。在中午前進食已經是遊方苦行者廣泛接受的習俗,佛陀只是吩咐他的比丘和比丘尼遵從。這習俗最初出現的原因可能是這樣的。印度的農婦一貫都是一早烹煮好整日的食物,而正餐就在早上。換句話說,早上是最適合托缽的時間。中午可能是進食的分界點,因為這是很清楚的。相當肯定的是比丘和比丘尼每日只吃一餐,由於他們不需從事勞動工作,因此不需進食大量的食物。所以重要的是弄清楚中午不是甚麼神秘的時間,在中午過後進食會是嚴重的道德敗壞。這只是個方便,以及在當時可行劃分時間的方法。

2011年11月29日星期二

The Buddhist Precepts II (〈佛教戒律 II〉)

Shravasti Dhammika, The Buddhist Precepts II

達爾卡法師 著   伍煥炤 譯 :〈佛教戒律 II〉

In addition to the five Precepts, serious Buddhists will try to practise the eight Precepts (attha sila), at least on the half and full moon days of every month. The eight Precepts are the same as the five except that the third is replaced by abstinence from all sexual behavior, and the additional three Precepts are: (6) not to eat after midday (7), to abstain from dancing, singing, playing or listening to music, personal adornment and makeup, and (8) not to use high seats and couches. Novice monks and nuns are expected to practise the ten Precepts (dasa sila) in preparation for their monastic life. These ten are: (1) not to harm living beings, (2) not to steal, (3) to abstain from sexual behaviour, (4) not to lie, (5) not to take alcohol or intoxicating drugs, (6) not to eat after midday, (7) to abstain from dancing, singing and musical entertainment, (8) to abstain from adornment and makeup, (9) not to use high seats and couches, and (10) not to use gold and silver, i.e. money.

五戒之外,認真的佛教徒還會嘗試踐行八戒 (attha sila),至少在半月和滿月的日子。八戒與五戒相同,只是第三戒改為徹底禁慾,另加上三樣戒律:(6) 過午不食、(7) 不觀聽歌舞、不香油塗身、不着香薰衣 (8) 不坐臥高廣大床。沙彌或沙彌尼在準備過寺院生活時應踐行十戒 (dasa sila),包括 (1) 不殺生、(2) 不偷盜、(3) 不邪淫、(4) 不妄語、(5) 不飲酒或服用毒品、(6) 過午不食、(7) 不觀聽歌舞、(8) 不香油塗身、不着香薰衣、(9) 不坐臥高廣大床和 (10) 不用金銀財寶,例如金錢。

It will be noticed that while the five Precepts pertain to moral behaviour, the last three of the eight Precepts and the last five of the ten Precepts, are not about morality, but about behaviour that simplifies and uncomplicated one's life so one can focus fully on the spiritual. The failure to understand this (somewhat common in traditional Buddhist countries) can cause all sorts of confusion. Over the next few days I will have a look at these 'lifestyle simplification' Precepts.

應注意的是五戒涉及道德行為,而八戒的最後三樣戒律和十戒的最後五樣戒律並不是關於道德,而是有關簡化個人的生活,從而使人能專注在精神的層面。未能明白這點的話 (在傳統佛教國家頻為普遍) 會造成各樣的混亂。在往後的幾日,我會研究一下這些「簡化生活方式」的戒律。

2011年11月28日星期一

The Buddhist Precepts I (〈佛教戒律 I〉)

Shravasti Dhammika, The Buddhist Precepts I

達爾卡法師 著   伍煥炤 譯 :〈佛教戒律 I〉

A precept (sikkhapada) is a self-imposed rule or discipline. The moral rules that all Buddhists commit themselves to and try to live by are called the five Precepts (panca sila). They are (1) not to harm living beings, (2) not to steal, (3) not to engage in wrong sexual behaviour, (4) not to lie and (5) not to take alcohol or other intoxicating drugs. In following these Precepts one gradually develops a respect for the life of others, for their property, their dignity, their right to know the truth and a respect for the clarity of one's own mind. The Buddha called adhering to these Precepts a consideration to others which ‘creates love and respect and which is conducive to helpfulness, non-dispute, harmony and unity’ (A.III, 287; M.I.322). I think this passage needs to be more well-known so I give it in Pali as well…

戒律 (sikkhapada) 是自我願意接受的規則或紀律,所有佛教徒承諾遵從和以此作為人之道的道德規範德稱為五戒 (panca sila),包括 (1) 不殺生、(2) 不偷盜、(3) 不邪淫、(4) 不妄語和 (5) 不飲酒或服用毒品。當人遵從這些戒律,人便會漸漸培養尊重別人生命、財產、尊嚴知道事實真相的權利,並着重個人頭腦的清晰。佛陀指堅持這些戒律是對別人的關懷,「能產生愛與尊重,有利於培育樂於助人、不爭、和諧與團結」(A.III, 287; M.I, 322)。我想這一段句子應讓更多人知道,因此,我會同時寫出它的巴利文:

piyakarana, garukarana, sangahaya, avivadaya, samaggiya, ekibhavaya, samvattanti.

The Buddha saw adherence to the Precepts as a gift (danani) which would benefit both the giver and the receiver. 'When a noble disciple practices the five Precepts he gives the gift of freedom from fear, from hatred and from ill-will to limitless beings. And in giving this gift he thereby partakes in a freedom from fear, from hatred and from ill-will which is limitless' (condensed, A.IV, 246). On another occasion, the Buddha called virtue 'freedom-giving' and 'conducive to concentration' (A.III,132) and he mentioned that one of the most important benefits of practicing the Precepts is that one experiences ‘the happiness of being blameless’ (anavajja sukha, D.I,70). In other words, Buddhists practices the five Precepts because they care about their own welfare and the welfare and happiness of others too.

佛陀認為遵守五戒是一種「布施」(danani),有益於贈予者和受領人。「當聖弟子踐行五戒,他就是向無限的眾生施予無懼、無瞋恚和無惡意的布施」(扼要:A.IV, 246)。在另一個場合,佛陀稱德行為「解脫束縛」和「有益於禪定」(A.III, 132),他提到踐行五戒其中一樣最重要的益處是讓人感到「戒除惡業的快樂」(anavajja sukha, D.I, 70)。換言之,佛教徒踐行五戒是因為他們關心自己福祉,以及別人的福祉和幸福。

Over the next week I am going to have comment on all the Five, Eight and Ten Precepts.

在往後的星期,我會討論一下五戒、八戒和十戒。

2011年11月23日星期三

一點憐憫

早上候車期間,聽到兩名男子談論一位女藝人被輕薄的事件,其中一人品評該女藝人的容貌,竟說出她沒有化妝時的樣貌很難看。我沒有細心留意這件新聞,也不太清楚該女藝人的相貌,不知道他們的評論是否合理。但我心想,她是事件中的受害人,我們應對她給予同情才對,怎可說出這樣的說話!若果事情發生在你的親人或朋友身上,你又會如何面對?佛陀教人要同情別人,看到別人的不幸遭遇要持有憐憫之心。

2011年11月22日星期二

找尋出版

早前完成翻譯了Bhante Shravasti Dhammika的To eat or not to eat meat: a Buddhist reflection,一直都在找出版社出版,但因種種的原因未能成事。但沒有因此而洩氣和放棄,繼續找尋出版社。最近又把稿件送交一間台灣的佛教出版社,每個機會也不能放棄,希望法師的中文釋文終有印刷成書的一日。

李叔同:《送别歌》

長亭外

古道邊

芳草碧連天

晚風拂柳笛聲殘

夕陽山外山

天之涯

地之角

知交半零落

一杯濁酒盡餘歡

今宵別夢寒

2011年11月16日星期三

掉了牙

早上遇到隔鄰的小朋友,人又高大了一點,閒談時發現他甩掉了幾顆門牙。

「你掉了多少牙?」

「五顆。」

「有沒有早晚刷牙?」

「當然有。」

「很快就會長出新牙,不用怕。」

「新牙都是白色的?」

「是的。如果你將來不注重口腔清潔,新牙也會甩掉的。」

「哈哈哈。」

2011年11月11日星期五

Royal Mail

Royal Mail早前從Wisdom Books購買了Ajahn Brahm的The Art of Disappearing、Sayādaw U Pandita的In This Very Life和Anthony KennedyWarder 的Indian Buddhism,收到時嚇了一跳,三本書居然放在一個印有Royal Mail的大袋內。現正思索如何把這個袋循環再用,找改造成環保袋也不錯。

Ajahn Vajiro & Ajahn Kusalo 佛法講座

十一月十一(星期五)
講座:為意料不到作預備
主講:阿姜瓦基羅 (Ajahn Vajiro)

十一月十二日(星期六)
講座:生活就是禪修
主講:阿姜庫沙羅 (Ajahn Kusalo)

十一月十三日(星期日)
禪修坊(需報名)
主講:阿姜庫沙羅

十一月十四日(星期一)
十一月十六日(星期三)
講座:在家修行系列
主講:阿姜庫沙羅

講座(無需報名)
時間:晚上七至九時
地點:九龍尖沙咀金巴利道16號香檳大廈2B室香港南傳禪修學會

英語主講
粵語翻譯

2011年9月26日星期一

Footprints In The Dust II (塵土上的足跡)

Shravasti Dhammika, Footprints In The Dust II
達爾卡法師 著 伍煥炤 譯 :〈塵土上的足跡〉II

1. The Buddha was not, as is commonly supposed, primarily a forest dweller. Of the four monasteries he founded and now identified by archaeologists - Ghositarama, Jivakarama, Jetavana and Veluvana - the first is actually inside the walls of the city while the other three are within easy walking distance of their respective cities. When staying in these places the Buddha’s accommodation would have been reasonably comfortable but when he was on the road the situation was very different and he would have to sleep in or take shelter in whatever was available. We read of him sleeping in a potter’s shed on grass spread on the floor (M.I:502). On another occasion, he arrived in Kapilavatthu and finding no proper lodgings, spent the night in Bharandu’s hermitage sleeping on a mat on the ground (A.I:277). Often he must have simply slept in one of the many mango groves that to this day are still to be seen near most north Indian villages. Finding him out in the open one winter’s night Hattaka asked the Buddha if he was happy. He replied; ‘Yes my lad, I live happily. Of those who live happily in the world I am one’. Hattaka expressed surprise at this, pointing out that it was the dark half of the month, the time of frost, that the ground was trampled hard by the hoofs of the cattle, the carpet of leaves thin, the wind cold and that the Buddha’s robe appeared to be thin. The Buddha reaffirmed that he was nonetheless happy (A.I:136).

1. 與普遍的想法不同,佛陀並不是一個主要以森林為居所的人。現今四所由考古學家確認的寺院瞿師羅園 (Ghositarama)、耆婆園 (Jivakarama)、祇園精舍 (Jetavana) 和竹林精舍 (Veluvana) — 第一所其實位於城內,而其餘三所則離城市步行不遠之處。當逗留在這些地方時,佛陀的起居是頗為舒適的,但當他展開行程時,情況就十分不同,他要四處找尋任何可供留宿的地方。我們知道他住在製陶工人的棚屋,睡在鋪上草的地上 (M. I: 502)。另一次,他到了迦毗羅衛國 (Kapilavatthu),發覺找不到適當的住處,於是在巴哈蘭度的草庵 (Bharandu) 內度宿,睡在地蓆上 (A. I: 277)。很多時他乾脆睡在一個芒果園。時至今日,在大多數印度北部的村落附近仍可找到這些芒果園。哈達卡 (Hattaka) 看到佛陀在冬天時睡在曠野,便問他是否快樂?他回答:「是的年青人,我生活得很快樂。在世上能活得快樂的人之中,我是其中的一位。」哈達卡對此感到驚訝,指出這是黑暗的日子、正值結霜、地面被牛腳踐踏得乾硬、樹葉製的毯子單薄、寒風凜冽,而佛陀只有薄薄的外袍。佛陀重申他仍然感到快樂 (A. I: 136)

2. The Buddha must have also enjoyed the freedom his life of wandering gave him. For him ‘the household life is full of hindrances, a path of dust. Free as the wind is the life of one who renounces all worldly things’ (D. I:62). However, moving from place to place had very important practical reasons behind it too, in a world without the communications that we take for granted it allowed him to spread his teachings far and wide. He was also aware that some personal contact with him was important, especially for newly ordained monks and nuns, and that this may have been a factor in determining in which districts he visited and how often (S,III:90). During his wanderings he might visit a district, teach, make some disciples, even ordain a few monks or nuns and then perhaps not come again for many years. If a monk from such a district wished to see him again he could simply set off to wherever the Buddha was staying at the time.

2. 佛陀定當享受遊方生活帶來的自由,對他來說「在家生活充滿羈絆,是一條暝曚的道路,捨棄世俗的事物就能如風一般自由」(D. I: 62)。然而,四處遊方的背後有很重要的原因,在缺乏通訊的時代,這能讓他把佛法廣泛地傳播開去。他亦意識到讓人們接觸自己的重要,特別是對於那些剛出家的比丘和比丘尼,這可能是決定了他到哪個地區和次數的因素 (S. III: 90)。在他遊方的時候,他可能到訪一個地方,在當地弘法,接受一些信眾皈依,甚至為一些比丘或比丘尼剃度,然後幾年也不再來。假如這些地方的比丘想再見佛陀,他只要前往佛陀當時所處的地方便可。

3.  Sona Kutikanna was ordained by Mahakaccana and about a year later developed the desire to meet the man whose teachings he had committed himself to. He said to his preceptor; ‘I have not yet met the Lord face to face, I have only heard about what he is like. If you give me permission I will travel to see the Lord, the Noble One, the Enlightened Buddha’(Ud,58). For lay disciples with domestic obligations undertaking a long journey to see the Buddha would have been more difficult and so they may have had to wait, perhaps many years, before they got to see him again. The Thapataya Sutta gives us some idea of the excitement caused in an outlying district when its inhabitants heard that the Buddha might be on his way to see him and how the excitement increased as word of his gradual approach reached them (S,V:348-349). Elsewhere we read of people’s anxiousness for news about the Buddha and of what he had been teaching.

3. 二十億耳 (Sona Kutikanna) 是摩訶迦旃延 (Mahakaccana) 剃度的比丘。在出家大約一年後,二十億耳有一個願望,想見到那個他皈依其教義的人。他對戒師說:「我還未能與世尊見面,我只聽過他的容貌,假如你准許的話,我會前往見世尊、聖者、正等正覺者」(Ud. 58)。對擁有家庭責任的在家弟子,要長途跋涉去見佛陀會更加困難,因此他們可能要等很多年才可再與佛陀見面。《塔帕塔雅經》(Thapataya Sutta) 告訴我們,當一處邊陲地區的居民聽到佛陀可能正前往當地,有關他快將到達的消息傳至時,他們的情緒高漲也高漲起來 (S.V: 348-349)。其他地方提到人們着緊有關佛陀的消息,以及他正在講授的佛法。

4.  Once a monk who had spent the rainy season with the Buddha in Savatthi arrived in Kapilavatthu. When people heard where the monk had come from he found himself deluged with questions about the Buddha (S,V:450). On another occasion a group of brahmins from Kosala and Magadha who had arrived in Vesali, heard that the Buddha just happened to be in town and decided that the opportunity to meet him was one that was too good to miss. The Buddha had apparently given his attendant instructions that he was not to be disturbed while the brahmins were adamant that they would not leave until they got to see the famous teacher.

4. 有一次,一位比丘與佛陀在舍衛城 (Savatthi) 度過雨季。當這比丘到了迦毗羅衛國 (Kapilavatthu),人知知道他從哪處來後,便接二連三詢問他關於佛陀的消息 (S.V: 450)。在另一次,一班憍薩羅國 (Kosala) 和摩揭陀國 (Magadha) 的婆羅門來到毘舍離 (Vesali),聽到佛陀剛巧在城中,認為是與佛陀見面千載難逢的機會。雖然佛陀明確指示侍者不要讓人打擾自己,但這些婆羅門卻堅持要見到佛陀才肯離開。

5.  Seeing this impasse, the novice Siha asked the attendant to tell the Buddha that there were three people waiting to see him. The attendant said he would not do this but he wouldn’t object if Siha did. This was done, the Buddha asked Siha to put a mat outside his residence in the shade for him to sit on while he talked to the brahmins (D. I: 151). But the Buddha couldn’t be everywhere at once and so monks and nuns would often take long journeys for the privilege of spending some time in his presence. For example once while he was residing in Catuma at least five hundred monks arrived to see him (M,I: 456).

5. 沙彌司哈 (Siha) 看到情況僵持不下,便請侍者轉告佛陀有三個人正等待與他見面。該名侍者說不會這樣做,但亦不會反對司哈自行告訴佛陀。佛陀從司哈得知事情後,便吩咐他在樹蔭下擺放一張草蓆給自己坐,然後與婆羅門傾談起來 (D. I: 151)。佛陀不能同時間在所有的地方出現,因此比丘和比丘尼經常要攀山涉水爭取與他見面的機會。例如有一次他在車頭 (Catuma) 居住,就至少五百名比丘前往探望他 (M. I: 456)
6.  However, with him moving around a lot, it was not always possible to know where he was at any one time. In the beautiful Parayana Vagga of the Sutta Nipata we read of the sixteen disciples of the ascetic Bavari setting out for northern India in the hope of meeting the Buddha. First they heard that he was at Savatthi and ‘wearing matted hair and dressed in deer skin’ they headed there. They went through Kosambi and Saketa and arrived in Savatthi only to find that he had left some time previously. They followed his route through Setavya, Kapilavatthu, Kusinara, Pava and Vesali finally catching up with him at the Pasanaka Shrine, (Barabar Hills north of Gaya) ‘and like a thirsty man going for cool water, like merchants going for profit, like a heat exhausted man going for shade, they quickly ascended the mountain’ (Sn.1014).

6. 然而,佛陀經常四處遊方,不能清楚知道他某時候身處何方。我們在《經集》 (Sutta Nipata) 的〈彼岸道品〉 (Parayana Vagga) 讀到苦行者波婆梨 (Bavari) 的十六位弟子前往印度北部,希望能找到佛陀。最初他們聽到他在舍衛城 (Savatthi),是個「頭髮蓬鬆,身穿鹿皮」的人,他們便到了那處。他們經拘舍彌 (Kosambi) 和沙計多 (Saketa)到舍衛城,抵達時發現他已離開了一段時間。他們跟隨着他的行縱,經斯婆醯 (Setavya)、迦毗羅衛國 (Kapilavatthu)、拘尸那揭羅 (Kusinara)、巴婆 (Pava) 和毘舍離 (Vesali),最後在石寺 (Pasanaka Shrine) (位於伽耶以北的巴拉巴山Barabar Hills) 追上他,就像「口渴的人找尋冷水、商人追求利潤和被炎熱煎熬的人找尋陰涼處一樣,他們趕快登上山」(Sn.1014)

7. There were undoubtedly as many languages and dialects spoken in the Buddha’s India as there are today and this would have created special problems for him. Theravada tradition asserts that the Buddha spoke Pali although there is no mention in the Tripitaka of what language he spoke. Like merchants, diplomats and others whose professions meant frequent travel in different regions it is very likely that apart from his mother tongue, which would have been a dialect of Kosala, he was probably fluent in several other languages as well.

7.  在佛陀的年代,印度毫無疑問有很多的語言和方言,情況就如現今一樣,這會對他造成特別的問題。雖然《大藏經》沒有提到佛陀所操的語言,但上座部的傳統聲稱佛陀是操巴利文的。佛陀如商人、外交官和其他要經常在各地穿梭的人,很可能除了他的母語 (應是憍薩羅語的一種方言),他或許還同時精於其他幾種語言。

8.  In the Aranavibhanga Sutta he says that insisting on using one’s own dialect in an area where another is spoken can only cause confusion and conflict. ‘It has been said, “One should not stake too much on the local language...” How does one do this? In different regions they might call the same thing a pati, a patta, a vittha, a serava, a dharopa, a pona, a hana or a pisila (these are all different words for a bowl or dish). So whatever they call it in one region, one uses that word thinking, “It seems this person is referring to that object”, and one uses that word accordingly’ These are the words of someone familiar with a range of languages and dialects and who was very open and practical about language.

8. 他在《無諍分別經》(Aranavibhanga Sutta, 相當於《中阿含169經》「拘樓瘦無諍經」) 中指出,在異地堅持使用自己的語言只會導致混亂和衝突。「經文這樣說:『人不應過份注重自己的語言……』人怎樣做到這點?不同的地方人們可能稱同一樣東西為pati, patta, vittha, serava, dharopa, pona, hanapisila (它們都解作碗或碟())。因此,無論人們在一處地方怎樣稱呼它,人在用這詞語時可這樣想:『這個人好像指這樣東西』,而他也要跟隨使用這詞語。」這說話是出自熟悉多種語言和方言,對語言持開放態度,以及從現實考慮語言問題的人。

9. The Buddha was equally open about regional customs as well. Once when he found some monks spending too much time bathing and playing in the water he made a rule that they should only bathe once a month. Later some monks who had been staying in an outlying region where people found their infrequent bathing revolting (not surprisingly) reported this to the Buddha and he allowed them to bathe more often to accord with the customs of that region. Once again this is the kind of thing one would expect of the urbane well-travelled individual. Whatever the Buddha was he was not parochial and no doubt his travels made him even more urbane and open-minded.

9. 佛陀對各地的習俗同樣持開明的態度。有一次,他發現一些比丘用了太多的時間在沐浴和玩水,他因而訂了一條戒律,規定他們只能一個月沐浴一次。後來,一些在邊陲地區居住比丘向佛陀報告,當地人討厭他們不常沐浴的習慣 (毫不奇怪)。佛陀於是准許他們多點沐浴,以跟隨該處地方的習俗。這樣的態度是一個溫文爾雅和的走南闖北的人應有的。無論佛陀怎樣,他都不是個眼光狹窄的人,毫無疑問遊方使他更為彬彬有禮和開通明達。

有關佛陀最後旅程的地圖可見:

For a map showing the Buddha’s last journey see

感謝藏經閣外的掃葉人指正錯處:
http://yifertw.blogspot.hk/2011/10/blog-post_21.html

2011年9月23日星期五

Footprints In The Dust I (塵土上的足跡)


Shravasti Dhammika, Footprints In The Dust
達爾卡法師    伍煥炤 :〈塵土上的足跡〉

1. The only two of the great religious teachers who were successful during their own lifetimes were the Mohammed and Siddhatta Gotama, the Buddha. Both had long teaching careers and both lived to see their respective religions firmly established. Prof. Basham has written that Buddhism was a minor religion until its adoption and promotion by King Asoka. Basham bases his assumption on the fact that there is no archaeological evidence of Buddhism before Asoka’s time but this seems to me to be a rather weak argument. What physical evidence are wandering ascetics, which are what the Buddha’s disciples were, likely to leave? They established few permanent monasteries and those they did build were made of mud, bamboo and thatch. As for stupas, these did not become an important feature of Buddhist worship until about the 2nd century BCE. The Pali Tipitaka offers ample and convincing evidence that the Buddha was well known throughout wide tracts of northern
India and that his Dhamma attracted large numbers of converts from all classes, especially the elite.

1.
只有穆罕默德和佛陀喬達摩.釋達多這兩位偉大的宗教宗師,在他們有生之年是成功的。兩人均有很長的傳教生涯,並看到各自的宗教穩固地建立起來。巴沙姆 (Basham) 教授提到直到阿育王信奉和提倡佛教之前,它只是個小宗教。巴沙姆的假設是基於沒有發掘到阿育王時代前的佛教文物,但對我來說這個論據非常薄弱。作為遊方的修行者,佛陀的弟子能留下甚麼實質的證據?他們建立了少量固定的寺院,而所建的寺院都是使用泥、竹和茅草來建築,佛塔也是在公元前二世紀才成為供奉佛教的主要特徵。巴利文《大藏經》提供了充份和可信的證據,證明佛陀在印度北部大多處地方廣為人識,他的佛法吸引了很多來自各階層,特別是精英階層的信徒。

2. The highly critical attitude of Jains and brahmins towards the new teaching as recorded in the Tipitaka suggests that they saw it as a real threat. An important cause of the Buddha’s success was no doubt his extraordinary personality. Even despite the great distance in time between he and us, the heavy editing of the suttas and their rather stilted language, the Buddha’s warm and compassionate presence shines through on nearly every page. The logical consistency of his Dhamma must have been an important factor also. However, no matter how appealing a teacher or how common-sense a teaching it will not attract converts unless they can come into contact with it. The Buddha was a missionary from the very beginning and this was, together with the two things mentioned above, the most important factor in the early success of his teachings. He had a still heart but a very mobile body.

2.
《大藏經》記載耆那教徒和婆羅門教徒對對這個新宗教極為批判,顯示他們視它為一個實在的威脅。超凡的性格無疑是佛陀成功的要素。儘管佛陀的時代與我們相距甚遠,佛經編排複雜,而文字又生硬,但差不多每一頁的經文都顯現了佛陀真摯和慈祥的風采。佛法邏輯的一致性也一定是個重要的因素。然而,無論是怎樣優秀的宗師,又或是眾人皆知的教義,若果接觸不到人的話也不能吸引信眾。佛陀由一開始就是個傳教士,這一點是早期佛法成功的關鍵。他擁有一顆寂靜的心和非常無拘無束的身軀。

3. According to the Tipitaka, almost the first thing the Buddha did after his enlightenment was to embark on a long journey in order to teach others what he had discovered. Equally significantly, his instructions to his first five disciples was that they should ‘wander forth’ to teach others what he had taught them.

3.
根據《大藏經》,佛陀在覺悟後幾乎第一件所做的事情,便是展開漫長的旅程,教導人們他發現的真諦。他指示首五名弟子「四處遊方」,把他傳授的佛法教導給其他人同樣是意義重大。

4. The area in which the Buddha wandered during his life corresponds roughly to the modern Indian states of Uttar Pradesh and
Bihar. The furthermost east he went which can still be identified is Kajangla (now Kankjol, 18 km south of Rajmahal right on the Indo-Bangladesh border) and the furthermost west he is known to have gone is Mathura, some 180 kilometres south of Delhi. These two locations are nearly a thousand kilometers apart. The Buddha’s movements northwards were of course limited by the then impenetrable jungles of the Himalayan foothills and it is unlikely that he ever went further south than the southern edge of the Ganges watershed. Still, this would mean that his wanderings covered an area roughly equivalent to 200,000 square kilometers, a huge area by any standards.

4.
佛陀在有生之年遊方的地方大約相當於現今印度的北方邦 (Uttar Pradesh) 和比哈爾邦 (Bihar)。最東他所到而仍可辨認的地方是羯朱嗢祇羅國 (Kajangla) (現今坎喀爾Kankjol,南距拉馬霍爾 Rajmahal 十八公里,位於印度和孟加拉邊境)。最西他曾去到馬圖拉 (Mathura, 秣菟羅),約德里 (Delhi) 一百八十公里以南。這兩處地方相距差不多一千公里。佛陀向北的旅程到達喜馬拉雅山腳,被該處茂密的森林阻礙,無法跨過。他也沒有可能到過恆河分水嶺南陲以外的地方。即使如此,這表示他遊方的範圍大約等於二萬平方公里,以任何的標準來說都是一個遼闊的地區。

5. The evidence suggests that the Buddha only occasionally visited the outer edges of this region. For example, he only visited
Mathura once and he probably visited Anga in the east (i.e. Campa, Bhaddiya and Kajangla corresponding to modern Bhagalpur District) only once also. Incidentally, I believe that Bhaddiya or Bhaddiyanagara as it is also sometimes called in the Tipitaka, can be safely identified with the village of Bhadariya some 12 kilometers south of Bhagalpur. However, most of the Buddha’s wanderings took place in the eastern part of this area, between the great cities of Savatthi, Rajagaha, Vesali and Kosambi. The Tipitaka mention carriageways in towns and paths, roads and highways through the countryside. However there is little doubt that these names referred to the frequency of traffic on these arteries, not to the quality of their paving or their width. All roads in ancient India were little more than dusty, rutted tracks in the summer and impassable rivers of mud in the rainy season. Banditry added to the risks of long distance travel.

5.
證據顯示佛陀只偶爾到訪這地區的邊陲,例如他只到過馬圖拉 (Mathura, 秣菟羅) 一次,也可能只到過東面的鴦伽 (Anga) 一次 (例如占婆 Campa、跋提 Bhaddiya和羯朱嗢祇羅國Kajangla,相當於現今的巴加爾布林 Bhagalpur District)。順帶一提,我相信跋提或《大藏經》有時稱為跋提城 (Bhaddiyanagara) 的地方,能準確被辨認為巴加爾布林以南十二公里一條稱為跋提的村落。然而,佛陀大多數遊方的地方集中在這地區的東部,在舍衛城 (Savatthi)、王舍城 (Rajagaha)、毘舍離 (Vesali) 和拘舍彌 (Kosambi) 這些大城市之間。《大藏經》提到城鎮中的車道,以及市郊佈滿小路和大道。但毋庸置疑,這些名稱所指是道路車輛的流量,而不是它們鋪砌的質素或寬度。所有古印度的道路大多是塵土飛揚,夏天時崎嶇不平,雨季時佈滿令人舉步難行的泥濘,盜賊則增加長途旅途的危險。

6. Travellers on the road between Savatthi and Sakheta were often robbed (Vin, IV: 87) and of course the fearsome Angulimala was a robber and murderer who operated in forested areas around Savatthi. Once the Buddha and an attendant were on tour of Kosala when they came to a fork in the road. The Buddha said they should take one fork while the attendant said they should take the other. This debate continued for some time until in a huff the attendant put the Buddha’s bowl down and walked off on the way he thought correct. He hadn’t gone far before he was attacked by bandits who ‘struck him with their fists and feet and tore his robe’ (Ud, 90). In the more remote districts travellers might have difficulty finding food, water and shelter. The Tipitaka mentions a traveller getting down on all fours to drink from a puddle in a cow’s footprint because no other water was available and of two parents lost in the wilderness who saved themselves from starvation by killing and eating their child. More normally thought travel was just uncomfortable, tedious and undertaken only when necessary. And yet it seems that the Buddha spent most of his time on the road in order to reach as many people as possible. Such was his determination and compassion.

6.
往來舍衛城 (Savatthi) 和沙計多 (Saketa, 娑雞帝) 的旅人常被盜賊搶劫 (Vin. IV: 87),央掘摩羅 (Angulimala) 這名令人生畏的盜賊和殺手就是在舍衛城附近的森林出沒。有一次,佛陀與一名侍者前往憍薩羅國 (Kosala),當他們到到達一岔路時,佛陀說應走這一邊,而侍者則說走另一邊。這討論持續了一會,侍者在一怒之下放低佛陀的缽,朝他認為正確的道路走去。他走到不遠就被盜賊襲擊,他們對他「拳打腳踢,並撕破他的僧袍」(Ud. 90)。在一些較為偏僻的地區,旅人可能在找食物、食水和住宿遇上困難。《大藏經》提到一名旅人因為找不到水源,結果要趴在地上,在牛腳印下的水坑喝水。又有一對父母在荒野迷路,他們靠殺死和吃掉自己孩子來充饑才得以保存性命。大多數人認為旅途勞頓和乏味的,只有在必要時才展開。然而,佛陀好像把大多時間用於旅途上,以接觸更多的人。這就是他的毅力和慈祥。

7. In keeping with the rules laid down by himself and in accordance with long established samana tradition, the Buddha spent three months of the rainy season in one location and the rest of the year on what were called ‘walking tours’. According to the commentarial tradition after the 20th year of his ministry he spent every rainy season in or near Savatthi, the capital of Kosala. The fact that more of his discourses are set in this city that in any other place suggests that there is some foundation in this tradition and if it is true he may have decided to limit his wanderings at that time due to age. He would have been sixty years old at the time. All the Buddha’s journeys were undertaken on foot although as there are numerous rivers in the land he knew he must have often had to use boats or ferries despite being no specific mention of him ever actually doing this.

7.
為遵循自己制定的戒律和沙門的一貫傳統,佛陀會在一處地方度過雨季,其他的時間則展開我們所指的「徒步旅程」。根據註釋,在弘法二十年後,他每個雨季都留在憍薩羅國 (Kosala) 的首都舍衛城 (Savatthi) 或附近的地方。佛陀在這城市弘法較任何其他地方多,這顯示了這傳統有一定的根據。又若這是事實的話,他可能由於當時年齡的關係而決定減少遊方,因他當時己經有六十歲。所有佛陀的旅程都是步行的,然而他亦常乘船或擺渡橫過陸上無數的河流,儘管這沒有特別的記錄。

8. We read of monks once crossing a river by holding on to the tails and backs of a herd of cattle that was swimming across the same river suggesting that when there was neither bridges, boats or rafts that the Buddha might have had to improvise as these monks did. There is no mention of the Buddha travelling by carriage or cart. In only one place is he described as wearing sandals, so he probably went bare footed most of the time (Vin,IV:186).

8.
我們讀到有一次比丘們過河的情景,他們抓緊同在過河牛隻的尾巴和背,顯示當沒有橋、船或筏的時候,佛陀也可能像這些比丘般隨機應變。佛經沒有提到他在旅途中乘客運車或運貨車,只有一處地方描述他穿着涼鞋,因此他大多時間都應是赤腳步行(Vin. IV: 186)

9. The Tipitaka mentions the itinerary of many of the Buddha’s journeys giving us an idea of the distances he sometimes travelled. For example, we know that within the first twelve months after his enlightenment he went from Uruvela to Isipatthana via
Gaya and Benares, spent the three months of the rainy season there and then travelled to Rajagaha via Benares, Gaya, Uruvela and Lativanna. All these places can be identified with certainly and thus we can calculate that he must have walked at least 300 kilometers. In the longest single journey recorded in the Tipitaka, he went from Rajagaha: to Vesali to Savatthi and back to Rajagaha via Kitigiri and Avali, a round trip of at least 1600 kilometres (Vin, IV,189). It is likely that he would have started a trip like this at the end of the rains retreat and arrived back in time for the next retreat nine months later. Unfortunately, it is not possible to know how much time these or any of the other journeys might have taken.

9.
《大藏經》提到很多佛陀旅程的日誌,讓我們對他有時行走的路程有點概念。例如,我們知道他在覺悟後的一年內,他由優婁頻羅 (Uruvela) 前住仙人住處 (Isipatthana, 鹿野苑),途經迦耶 (Gaya) 和波羅奈 (Benares),在仙人住處渡過三個月的雨季,然後經波羅奈、迦耶和優婁頻羅和杖林 (Latthivana) 回到王舍城。這些地方可肯定被確認,因此我們能計算他行走了至少三百公里。《大藏經》記載他最長的旅程是由王舍城到毘舍離 (Vesali) 和舍衛城 (Savatthi),然後經迦尸黑山 (Kitagiri) 和曠野國 (Alavi) 折返王舍城,來回至少一千六百公里 (Vin. IV: 189)。他可能在結夏安居後展開這樣的旅程,並準時在九個月後的下一次結夏安居返回來。可惜的是我們無法得知這些旅程所需的時間。

10. In the famous Mahaparinibbana Sutta we know that he went from Rajagaha to Kusinara via Nalanda,
Patna and Vesali, a total distance of about 300 kilometers. According to the sutta he left Vesali at the end of the rains retreat (October) and of course he is supposed to have attained final nirvana in Kusinara on the full moon of Vesakha (May). This suggests that he took seven months to travel about 95 kilometres. Even allowing for the fact that he was old and in ill health this seems like a very long time. It should be pointed out that only later text in the Tipitaka mention that the Buddha’s parinivana took place at Vesakha and the sutta gives the impression that while his last journey was slow it was at a steady pace. However, it seems likely that the Buddha conducted his journeys at a leisurely pace.

10.
我們從著名的《大般涅槃經》知道他由王舍城出發,經那爛陀村 (Nalanda, 後來的那爛陀寺)、巴特那村 (Patna, 後來的華氏城) 和毘舍離 (Vesali) 到達拘尸那揭羅 (Kusinara, 拘尸那羅),全程約三百公里。根據他在結夏安居 (十月) 後在毘舍離所說的經文,他應在衛塞節 (五月) 的滿明在拘尸那揭羅入滅。這顯示他在七個月行了約九十五公里。即使考慮到他年紀老邁和病了一段頗長的時間,這也像一段很長的時間。必須強調只有《大藏經》後期的經文提到佛陀在衛塞節涅槃,這給人的印象是即使他最後的旅程緩慢,但步伐仍是穩健的。然而,佛陀很可能是悠閒地展開他的旅程。

11. The evidence suggests that he would wake before sunrise, go for pindapata in the nearest town or village just after sunrise and having eaten, would set off while it was still cool. He would walk until the
midday heat became unpleasant and then take an afternoon rest. If there was a village nearby he might stay until the next morning and if not he might continue walking until he got to the next village. How long he stayed at a particular place would have depended on many factors - whether local people came to talk with and listen with him, whether food and water was available, whether the atmosphere was congenial. We know for example that he cut short his first stay in Rajagaha when people began to complain that too many young men were leaving their families to become monks. Once he arrived in the village of Thuna to find that there was no water to drink because the brahmin inhabitants, hearing that he was coming, had blocked up their wells with rice husks and cow dung. The warm and respectful reception that Buddhist monks get today was not always available to the Buddha and his disciples. He is often described as travelling with either 500 monks (a conventional number meaning ‘a lot’) or simply with ‘a large group of monks’. At other times he would dismiss his attendant and companions telling them that he wanted to wander by himself for a while (S.III:94).

11.
證據顯示他在黎明前醒來,剛日出便到最近的城鎮或村落托缽,飯後當天氣仍然涼快時起程,一直行到中午,直到炎熱的天氣使人不適時他便會在下午休息。假如附近有村落他可能逗留到明早,若果沒有的話他可能繼續行程,直到抵達下一條村落。他逗留在一個地方多久取決於很多的因素當地人是否到來聆聽佛法,與自己交談,有沒有食物和食水供應,氣氛是否和睦。例如我們知道他縮短第一次到王舍城 (Rajagaha) 的時間,因為當地人開始投訴太多年青人捨棄家庭出家為僧。(Vin. IV: 43)。有一次他抵達土拿村 (Thuna),發現沒有飲用的食水,原來當地的婆羅門居民在聽到他到來時,便用稻殼和牛糞把他們的水井封起來 (Ud.78)。現今佛教比丘們受到熱情和恭敬的接待,這是佛陀和他的弟子不常遇到的。佛陀常被形容與五百比丘 (慣常解作「很多」的意思) 或簡單地指與「一大群比丘」遊方。他也有時候會辭退侍者和同伴,告訴他們自己想單獨遊方一會 (S. III: 94)

感謝藏經閣外的掃葉人指正錯處:
http://yifertw.blogspot.hk/2011/10/blog-post_21.html

2011年9月20日星期二

第七章 我如何成為素食者 9

Shravasti Dhammika, To EAT OR NOT TO EAT MEAT: A BUDDHIST REFLECTION

Chapter 7 How I became a vegetarian

9. Since that time I have cut my meat consumption by at least 95%. The force of long established habit, circumstance or just the desire for a juicy steak accounting for the other 5%. So my decision to become vegetarian was brought about by three things - a gradual awareness of the need for active and engaged (as opposed to passive) metta in the Buddhist life, by an incident of visceral revulsion with meat, and then by the reasoning of a philosopher helping me see the implications in the Buddha’s words that I had not seen before. I could not honestly say that I am grateful to that Cambodian man with his putrefying chickens, but I am most grateful to Peter Singer.

達爾卡法師 著   伍煥炤 譯 :《吃肉還是不吃肉:佛教的反思》

第七章   我如何成為素食者

9.  由這時候開始,我減低了至少百份之九十五的肉食量,餘下的百份之五是由於長期建立的習慣、環境或只是對一塊多汁牛排的慾望。因此,我成為素食者的決定是由三樣東西促成的 — 漸漸領悟到佛教生活需要積極實踐慈心 (與被動的相反)、一次出自本能對肉類嫌惡的事件,以及一位哲學家的論證幫助我領悟到佛陀說話的意義,這是我以往沒有認識到的。我實在不能說要感謝那位賣腐壞雞隻的柬埔寨男人,但我真的非常感激彼得.辛格。

* 歡迎轉載,但請註明出處和不改動譯文內容。

2011年9月15日星期四

With ungratified desires the sensual die

The man who gathers flowers (of sensual pleasure), whose mind is distracted, and who is insatiate in desires, the Destroyer brings under his sway.

Ven. Nàrada, Dhammapada

Ven. Kakkapalliye Anuruddha Thera解釋了以上的偈誦。

採集花卉 (沉溺感官欲樂),心生染着,貪欲不知足的人,死亡會到臨他的身上。

這首偈誦與一名女子的生死有關。

一名女子在忉利天誕生,她的名字是瑪拉巴哈爾 (Malabhari),是忉利天王的妻子。有一日,她到花園採摘花朵,她突然去世。她在人世間再生,名為庫瑪莉 (Patipujika Kumari) 。

當天人快將死亡時,有五樣的跡象會出現,稱為天人五衰。他頭上的花環會凋謝、衣服變得骯髒、腋窩流汗、身體失去光澤、不喜歡坐在平日的寶座。其他天人看到這情景後,便會集合一起,鼓勵即將死亡的天人要往生人間,因為只有在人間才能聽到佛陀說法,這是非常難得的機會。

當庫瑪莉十六歲時,父母為她安排婚嫁,後來生了四名子女。庫瑪莉能記起前生的事情,知道自己是忉利天王的妻子,心中常想着要再次往生忉利天。庫瑪莉是一位虔誠的佛教徒,每日到佛寺聽法師說法和布施,累積了很多善業。有一日,她到寺院幫助清潔,向僧侶布施後回家,不久就病死了。庫瑪莉死後,她往生忉利天。

佛教認為,假若人心常想着一善的目標,這目標是可達成的,正如庫瑪莉的做法。人的生死由業力決定,我們日常生活的每一刻都是累積業力,生死是息息相關的。

庫瑪莉到了忉利天時,忉利天王說早上看不到她,問她去了甚麼地方。庫瑪莉回答她當地死了,並往生人間,然後才回到忉利天。人間一百年等於天上一日。忉利天王說人生是很短暫的,問人是否過着德行的生活。庫瑪莉回答世間有好人和壞人。

寺院的僧人對庫瑪莉的逝世感到傷心,他們把事情告訴佛陀。佛陀說不要悲傷,因為她只是返回所屬的地方。佛陀然後說出以上的偈誦。

2011年9月8日星期四

第七章 我如何成為素食者 8

Shravasti Dhammika, To EAT OR NOT TO EAT MEAT: A BUDDHIST REFLECTION

Chapter 7 How I became a vegetarian

8.  As I followed his arguments I found myself forced by the logic of them to agree with him. Over the next week or two I returned to parts of the book and reread them and finally decided that anyone who wants metta and karuna to be a more important part of their character would have to seriously consider being vegetarian. As a Buddhist I do wish to have metta and karuna dominant in my life and so I made the decision to abstain from eating meat.

達爾卡法師 著   伍煥炤 譯 :《吃肉還是不吃肉:佛教的反思》

第七章   我如何成為素食者

8.   當我理解他的論據時,發覺自己不期然地被當中的邏輯說服。在往後的一兩個星期,我再次閱讀書的部份章節,最後得到一個結論,就是任何人若想慈心和悲心成為性格的重要部份,都應認真考慮吃素。作為一個佛教徒,我確實希望慈心和悲心主導我的人生,因此,我決心要戒除吃肉。

* 歡迎轉載,但請註明出處和不改動譯文內容。

2011年9月5日星期一

第七章 我如何成為素食者 7

Shravasti Dhammika, To EAT OR NOT TO EAT MEAT: A BUDDHIST REFLECTION

Chapter 7 How I became a vegetarian

7.  One hot afternoon as I lay on my bed feeling rather bored and with nothing to read, I picked Singer's book up thinking to just browse through it. As it happened, the parts I read interested me so much that I returned to the beginning and read the whole thing in three sittings. I had been expecting it to take the usual vegetarian's approach, calling meat ‘carrion’ or ‘rotten flesh,’ quoting the opinions of famous odd-ball vegetarians, giving long descriptions of how meat ferments in the bowels and claiming that a vegetarians’ poo smells better than a meat eaters’ poo. Instead, Singer argues for the kind treatment of animals (including not eating them) soberly, objectively, logically and convincingly. Peter Singer is a professional philosopher and he writes like one. And incidentally, he has nothing to do with the extremist animal rights group Animal Liberation.

達爾卡法師 著   伍煥炤 譯 :《吃肉還是不吃肉:佛教的反思》

第七章   我如何成為素食者

7.  在一個炎熱的下午,我躺在床上,感到很無聊,在沒東西閱讀的情況下,我拿起辛格的書,心想只翻一翻。事情凑巧,我被眼前閱讀的章節深深吸引着,於是由頭開始閱讀,並分三次把書讀完。我最初以為它採用常見的素食主義者的方式,稱肉類為「臭屍」或「腐肉」、引用著名古怪素食主義者的意見、長篇描述肉類如何在腸內發酵,並聲稱素食主義者糞便的氣味比肉食者好。辛格沒有這樣做,而是冷靜、客觀、 符合邏輯和具說服力地主張友善對待動物 (包括不吃牠們)。彼得.辛格是一位高水準的哲學家,他的寫作也恰如其分。順便提一句,他與極端的動物權益組織動物解放 (Animal Liberation) 沒有任何的關係。

* 歡迎轉載,但請註明出處和不改動譯文內容。

2011年8月31日星期三

第七章 我如何成為素食者 6

Shravasti Dhammika, To EAT OR NOT TO EAT MEAT: A BUDDHIST REFLECTION

Chapter 7 How I became a vegetarian

6.  Three months later, on a quick trip to Australia, a Sri Lankan friend gave me some things to deliver to his brother back in Sri Lanka. One of these things was a book called Animal Liberation by Peter Singer.* I had never heard of this book and its title aroused no interest in me. Back in Sri Lanka I called the brother and he said he would come the next day to collect the things. However, he didn't show up for another three months. The book and other things sat around my room acting as a sort of silent reminder of how casual Sinhalese can be towards keeping appointments.

* The book has recently been re-issued as Animal Liberation - The Definitive Classic of the Animal Liberation Movement, Harper 2009.

達爾卡法師 著   伍煥炤 譯 :《吃肉還是不吃肉:佛教的反思》

第七章   我如何成為素食者

6.  三個月後,我在澳洲短期旅行,一位斯里蘭卡朋友托我帶些東西回當地的兄弟,其中一樣東西是一本彼得.辛格 (Peter Singer) 撰寫的《動物解放》(Animal Liberation)*。我從沒有聽過這本書,它的題目也沒喚起我的興趣。回到斯里蘭卡後,我通知朋友的兄弟,他說明日來取這些東西。然而,他在三個月內也沒有出現。這本書和其他東西就放在我的房間,無聲無息地提示着僧伽羅人對赴約是何等的隨意。

這本書在2009年由Harper出版社重新發行,書名Animal Liberation - The Definitive Classic of the Animal Liberation Movement

* 歡迎轉載,但請註明出處和不改動譯文內容。

2011年8月29日星期一

第七章 我如何成為素食者 5

Shravasti Dhammika, To EAT OR NOT TO EAT MEAT: A BUDDHIST REFLECTION

Chapter 7 How I became a vegetarian

5.  As I sat at the table with all the dishes of food on it I immediately noticed that the main dish was, you guessed it, chicken. As soon as I saw it my stomach began to churn again and I had to rush from the hall. I didn’t vomit this time but my appetite had quite gone. Over the next few weeks my taste for meat, any meat, just went. It slowly returned but if the memory of the putrid formalin-dosed chickens was aroused I had to consciously suppress it or lose my appetite.

達爾卡法師 著   伍煥炤 譯 :《吃肉還是不吃肉:佛教的反思》

第七章   我如何成為素食者

5.  當我坐在放滿食物的桌子,你猜一猜我當時發覺主菜是甚麼,就是雞肉。我一看到後胃部又再劇烈攪動,我趕快離開飯堂。這次我沒有嘔吐,但我完全失去了胃口。在往後的幾個星期,我失去對任所肉類的興趣,要慢慢才恢復過來。但若想起攙入福爾馬林的腐爛雞隻,我便要刻意壓抑這記憶,要不是的話就會失去食慾。

* 歡迎轉載,但請註明出處和不改動譯文內容。

2011年8月25日星期四

第七章 我如何成為素食者 4

Shravasti Dhammika, To EAT OR NOT TO EAT MEAT: A BUDDHIST REFLECTION

Chapter 7 How I became a vegetarian

4.  The association in my mind of food, the chicken, and the formalin, which as you probably know is used by undertakers to preserve human cadavers, revolted me so much that I turned away and actually vomited. A man behind one of the stalls saw this and most kindly offered me a glass of water so I could wash my mouth out. When I got back to the temple I was still feeling a bit nauseous but not so much that I could not eat and when the lunch bell rang I made my way to the dining hall.

達爾卡法師 著   伍煥炤 譯 :《吃肉還是不吃肉:佛教的反思》

第七章   我如何成為素食者

4.  你可能知道殯儀業者用福爾馬林來保存屍體。我想到這些雞肉和福爾馬林加在一起時,感到極為噁心,轉頭便真的嘔吐起來。一個攤檔的男人看到了我的情況,很友善地給我一杯水來清潔口腔。我回到寺院後仍感到有點作嘔,但沒有嚴重到使我不能進食。當午飯的鐘聲響起後,我便前往飯堂。

* 歡迎轉載,但請註明出處和不改動譯文內容。

2011年8月23日星期二

第七章 我如何成為素食者 3

Shravasti Dhammika, To EAT OR NOT TO EAT MEAT: A BUDDHIST REFLECTION

Chapter 7 How I became a vegetarian

3.  Then it dawned on me. The chickens were slightly putrid, in places their yellowish-white skin was going green or gray and the stench of decay wafted up into my nostrils. The man was sticking a needle attached to the hose into each chicken and as he did so the boy pumped the cylinder. In countries like Cambodia, when a butcher’s or fish monger’s wares have gone off, it is sometimes pumped full of formalin to disguise the putrefaction so it can continue to be sold. Of course this is illegal but in such countries the enforcement of health regulations are rather lax.

達爾卡法師 著   伍煥炤 譯 :《吃肉還是不吃肉:佛教的反思》

第七章   我如何成為素食者

3.  然後我明白了。這些雞隻已經輕微腐爛,部份黄白色的雞皮正變成綠色或灰色,腐爛的惡臭撲鼻而來。當這個男人把連着軟管的針插入每隻雞的時候,男童則泵着氣瓶。在一些好像柬埔寨的國家,當屠夫或魚販的貨物變質了,有時候會被注滿福爾馬林來掩飾腐壞,以便能繼續售賣。當然這是非法的行為,但在這些國家衛生法規的執行是相當寬鬆的。

* 歡迎轉載,但請註明出處和不改動譯文內容。

2011年8月19日星期五

第七章 我如何成為素食者 2

Shravasti Dhammika, To EAT OR NOT TO EAT MEAT: A BUDDHIST REFLECTION

Chapter 7 How I became a vegetarian

2.  I walked on hoping to get to the fruit and vegetable section and a few minutes later found my way blocked by a large round basket that was placed right in the middle of the aisle. The basket was full of dead and plucked chickens and a man was crouching beside the basket doing something to the chickens with a hose while a young boy stood on the other side doing something with what looked like a gas cylinder. I stood there for a moment trying to take in the scene before me.

達爾卡法師 著   伍煥炤 譯 :《吃肉還是不吃肉:佛教的反思》

第七章   我如何成為素食者

2.  我繼續走希望到售賣水果和蔬菜的地方。幾分鐘後,我發覺前路給一個圓形的大籃子阻擋着,它剛好擺放在通道的中間。籃子裝滿拔掉毛的死雞,一個男人蹲在旁邊,用軟管對着雞隻,而一個男童則站在另一邊,好像拿着一個氣瓶在工作。我站在那裏一會,想看看眼前的景象。

* 歡迎轉載,但請註明出處和不改動譯文內容。

2011年8月18日星期四

第七章 我如何成為素食者 1

Shravasti Dhammika, To EAT OR NOT TO EAT MEAT: A BUDDHIST REFLECTION

Chapter 7 How I became a vegetarian

1.  It was a Saturday morning and I was in Phnom Penh walking through the central market looking for some fruit to buy. I unknowingly soon found myself in the meat section. Even a blind person would know they were there. The stench was overpowering. Chickens with wet feathers and blank expressions sat in tiny cages, probably oblivious to what was soon to happen to them. The goats certainly knew. You could see it in their eyes. But there was nothing they could do and they just stood there, heads bowed, resigned to their fate. Meat hung on hooks, knives and cleavers lay on chopping blocks and everything was covered with blood and flies. For a nonhuman animal it would be a vision of hell.

達爾卡法師 著   伍煥炤 譯 :《吃肉還是不吃肉:佛教的反思》

第七章   我如何成為素食者

1.  這是個星期日的早上,我走進金邊的中央市場選購水果,不知不覺地發現自己走到了售賣肉類的地方。即使是一個失明的人也知道他們處身這裏。這裏的惡臭讓人無法忍受。雞隻的羽毛濕透,呆滯地蹲在小籠內,可能未察覺到自己快將發生的事情。山羊肯定知道是甚麼回事,你可從牠們的眼中看出來。然而,牠們沒有甚麼可以做,只能站在那裏,低着頭接受命運的安排。肉掛在鉤上,刀子和切肉刀則放在砧板上,所有的東西都佈滿了血和蒼蠅。對於人類之外的動物而言,這就是地獄的情景。

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2011年8月16日星期二

Death takes the sensual unawares (IV)

The man who gathers flowers (of sensual pleasure), whose mind is distracted, death carries off as a great flood sweeps away a sleeping village.

Ven. Nàrada, Dhammapada

Ven. Kakkapalliye Anuruddha Thera解釋了以上的偈誦。

採集花卉 (沉溺感官欲樂),心生染着的人,死亡就好像洪水一樣沉睡的村落。

有一日,波斯匿王前往迦毘羅衛國,佛陀剛巧也在當地的寺院。波斯匿王於是前往見佛陀,吩咐班杜拉的侄子準備馬車。到達寺院後,波斯匿王除下國王的儀仗,然後靜靜行到佛陀的房間,虔誠地頂禮佛陀。

當波斯匿王與佛陀談話時,班杜拉的侄子在拿着國王的儀仗,帶領軍隊返回憍薩羅國,擁立毘琉璃為新國王。波斯匿王離開時發覺所有軍隊和在侍從都離開了,明白到可能發生兵變。波斯匿王打算請求摩揭陀國的頻婆娑羅王派兵幫助奪回王位。波斯匿王來到王舍城時城門已經關閉,他只能在城門外度宿。第二日早上,波斯匿王在睡中逝世。頻婆娑羅王為波斯匿王舉行葬禮。

毘琉璃成為王帝後決定攻打迦毘羅衛國,報復釋迦族人欺騙父親波斯匿王。毘琉璃統領大軍,抵達迦毘羅衛國的邊境,看到佛陀坐在樹下。毘琉璃很尊敬佛陀,上前頂禮佛陀。

毘琉璃對佛陀說:「世尊,為甚麼你不坐在樹蔭較多的地方?」

佛陀回答:「雖然這處沒有太多的樹蔭,但從迦毘羅衛國方向吹來了涼風。」

毘琉璃聽到後,明白佛陀不支持他征伐迦毘羅衛國,於是帶領軍隊返回憍薩羅國。後來,毘琉璃又再討伐迦毘羅衛國,途中又遇到佛陀。毘琉璃同樣退兵。毘琉璃第三次領軍攻打迦毘羅衛國,佛陀也在軍隊途經的地方出現。毘琉璃又再取消出兵。

到了第四次,佛陀深思迦毘羅衛國的將來,意識到釋迦族人犯了共業 (collective kamma),他們的滅亡是無可避免的。這次佛陀沒有再阻止毘琉璃。憍薩羅國的士兵攻陷迦毘羅衛國,毘琉璃下令殺死所有的釋迦族人,只放過外祖父一家。

毘琉璃返回憍薩羅國,大軍在河邊紮營度宿。晚上下着大雨,引發河水泛濫,結果把所有人沖到大海淹死。佛陀知道這事情後說出了以上的偈誦。

比丘們問佛陀釋迦族人犯了甚麼共業。佛陀說在過往生中,他們把毒藥放在河中,毒死了其他飲用河水的人,因此形成了共業。