2011年2月28日星期一

第一章 古印度的素食主義 11

Shravasti Dhammika, To EAT OR NOT TO EAT MEAT: A BUDDHIST REFLECTION

Chapter 1   Vegetarianism in ancient India

11. What about Indian society in general? The evidence shows that from its very beginning Jainism was strongly vegetarian and has been so ever since. There is no evidence that Brahmanisn, the main religion during the Buddha’s time, taught vegetarianism. Vedic sacrifices in which animals were slaughtered were still being practiced and are frequently mentioned in the Tipitaka (e.g. Anguttara Nikaya I, 66; II,42; IV,41). However, the Vinaya mentions what were called maghata, certain days of the month when animals were not slaughtered and meat was not available in the markets (Vinaya I, 217).The Jataka also mentions maghata and adds that they would be announced by the beat of a drum (Jataka IV, 115).Were these non-killing days a result of a general unease about meat eating, or due to the influence of Buddhism, or of Jainism? We don’t know. The Kama Sutra (3rd cent CE?) points out that alcohol and dog meat increase a man’s virility but then adds, somewhat halfheartedly, that a circumspect man would nonetheless take neither. It also gives recipes for aphrodisiacs, many of them including animal flesh and organs. So once again we have an ambiguous attitude towards consuming meat.

達爾卡法師 著   伍煥炤 譯 :《吃肉還是不吃肉:佛教的反思》

第一章 古印度的素食主義

11. 哪麼印度社會的普遍情形怎樣?證據顯示耆那教從一開始便積極奉行素食,並延續至今。沒有證據顯示佛陀時的主要宗教婆羅門教有宣揚素食主義。《大藏經》常提到在吠陀的祭祀中屠宰動物,而現在還繼續奉行這種做法 (例如《增支部》I, 66; II, 42; IV, 41)。然而,戒律提到禁殺令 (maghata),它規定在每個月中的某些日子禁止屠宰禽畜,市場沒有肉類供應 (《律藏》I, 217)。本生也提到禁殺令,並補充人們會以鼓聲宣佈禁殺令 (《本生經》IV, 115)。這些禁殺日子的出現是出於對吃肉的普遍不安,還是由於佛教或耆那教的影響?我們不得而知。《愛經》(Kama Sutra, 公元三世紀?) 指出酒和狗肉能增強男性的生殖力,但亦有點不情願地補充說明,一個謹慎的男人不應選擇這兩樣東西。它亦提供壯陽的藥方,很多包括動物的肉和器官。因此,我們對吃肉再次感到模稜兩可。

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