2011年4月29日星期五

第三章 動機和肉類 4

Shravasti Dhammika, To EAT OR NOT TO EAT MEAT: A BUDDHIST REFLECTION

Chapter 3 Motivation and meat

4. The Buddha highlighted this point when he said that right actions are a type of consideration or thoughtfulness (saraniya) to others that lead to “love, respect, kind regard, harmony and peace”. (piyakarana garukarana sangahaya avivadaya samaggiya…, Anguttara Nikaya III,289). Just so that there can be no uncertainty about what the Buddha said here, piya = love; karana = making, causing; garu = respect, esteem; sangaha, sympathy, togetherness, mutuality; avivada = non-dispute, harmony; samagga = peace, concord.

達爾卡法師 著   伍煥炤 譯 :《吃肉還是不吃肉:佛教的反思》

第三章  動機和肉類

4.  佛陀對此加以強調,指出正當的行為是一種對別人的關懷或體貼 (saraniya),能帶來「愛心、尊重、親切的關心、和諧和安樂」(piyakarana garukarana sangahaya avivadaya samaggiya… 《增支部》III, 289)。毫無疑問,佛陀在這裏的說話可譯成piya = 愛;karana = 造成、導致;garu = 尊重、尊敬;sangaha = 同情心、團結、親密無間;avivada = 沒有爭議、和諧;samagga = 安樂、和睦。

* 歡迎轉載,但請註明出處和不改動譯文內容。

2011年4月28日星期四

Learning without practice is of no worth

Though much he recites the Sacred Texts, but acts not accordingly, that heedless man is like a cowherd who counts others' kine. He has no share in the fruits of the Holy Life.

Though little he recites the Sacred Texts, but acts in accordance with the teaching, forsaking lust, hatred and ignorance, truly knowing, with mind well freed, clinging to naught here and hereafter, he shares the fruits of the Holy Life.

Ven. Nàrada, Dhammapada

Ven. Kakkapalliye Anuruddha Thera解釋了以上的偈誦。

這兩偈誦與兩名比丘有關。

兩名比丘中,其中一位是學者比丘,另一位是修行比丘。兩人在家時是朋友,後來一同出家。年長的比丘問佛陀新比丘可跟從哪些方式學習。佛陀回答比丘可選擇學問 (gantadura 佛典的責任) 或修習 (vipassanādhura 內觀的責任),前者是研究經籍,後者則修習禪定。Vipassanā解作內觀,是「直接認識事物實相」的意思。

老比丘說自己年紀老邁,記憶力衰退,沒有能力應付書本的知識,於是決定到森林進行修習。修習是觀想事物的實相—苦 (dukka)、無常 (anicca)、無我 (anattā)。老比丘透過修習清除心中的污染物,成為阿羅漢。年青的比丘選擇研讀佛經,成為著名的學者比丘,在舍衛城教授佛經,很多人跟隨他學習。年青的比丘認為修習沒有作用。學習會使人變得傲慢,若果沒有謙卑的心,就不算博學的人。

有一日,老比丘到舍衛城見佛陀,年青的比丘決定趁機譴責他。佛陀知道了年青的比丘的想法,見面時問年青的比丘有關修習的事情。由於他沒有修習的經驗,因此不能回答。佛陀再問老比丘同樣的問題,相反他能夠逐一回答。

佛陀沒有否定學習經籍的重要性,但更強調修習。

2011年4月21日星期四

Happy are the righteous

Here he is happy, hereafter he is happy. In both states the well-doer is happy. "Good have I done" (thinking thus), he is happy. Furthermore, he is happy, having gone to a blissful state.

Ven. Nàrada, Dhammapada

Ven. Kakkapalliye Anuruddha Thera解釋了以上的偈誦。

他現生快樂,在來生也快樂。作出善業的人現生和來生都快樂。他想到自己所作的善業,因而感到快樂。在投生善趣後同樣快樂。

善趣 (suggatim) 是指人界和天界這些快樂的地方,而惡趣 (duggatim) 是則是地獄和畜生道這些苦的地方,兩者是由人的業力帶來。業是「有意志的行為」,分身、口、意三種。業與責任連結一起,人要對所作的行為負責,無法逃避。

身和口的行為與社會生活有關,意的行為則屬個人。例如對人說話是一種社會行為。我們要在個道德和社會層面為自己的行為負責,若果我們作出善業,我們會得到人們的稱讚。

這首偈誦與給孤獨長者 (Anathapindika) 的女兒有關。

孤獨長者是舍衛城的富翁,是佛陀主要的供養者,佈施了祈樹給孤獨園給佛陀。給孤獨長者是一名初果聖人,是四個聖人之一。佛教提到的四果聖人是指入流果 (初果 Sotāpanna)、一還果 (二果 Sakadāgāmī)、不還果 (三果 Anāgāmī) 和阿羅漢 (四果 Arahant)。流在佛教中指八正道 (Aṭṭhaṅgika magga),又作中道,是佛教徒的生活方式。當人進入流中,流便能帶人到終點—涅槃。

正見 sammā diṭṭhi 正思維 sammā saṅkappa
正語 sammā vācā 正業 sammā kammanta
正命 sammā ājῑva 正精進 sammā vāyāma
正念 sammā sati 正定 sammā samādhi

正見又稱為正信,是對佛、法、僧有堅定的信心,不會動搖。

須末那 (Sumana) 是給孤獨長者最年幼的女兒。有一次,給孤獨長者外出經商,突然接到須末那病危的消息,於是匆匆趕回家中。須末那在病重中稱呼父親為「弟弟」。給孤獨長者感到很驚訝,不相信自己聽到的說話,懷疑女兒的心境紛亂。不久之後,須末那便去世了。

給孤獨長者前往詢問佛陀有關女兒的事情,他說女兒是一名虔誠的佛教徒,但去世前神智不清,擔心她可能投生惡趣。佛陀說須末那的心沒有迷茫,她是二果聖人,在修習上比給孤獨長者進步,因此稱父親為「弟弟」是恰當的。

2011年4月20日星期三

第三章 動機和肉類 3

Shravasti Dhammika, To EAT OR NOT TO EAT MEAT: A BUDDHIST REFLECTION

Chapter 3 Motivation and meat

3.  (3) And the third reason is love and concern for others. I avoid harming or killing others because I care about their welfare. I don’t steal from them because I respect their property. I don’t sexually exploit or misuse them because I respect their dignity and their right to choose. I do not lie to them because I respect their right to receive and know the truth. And I do not intoxicate myself with alcohol because when I encounter them I want meaningful communication between us. In short, fidelity to the Precepts is as much as anything an act of love, not just to the person I am directly relating to but the wider community.

達爾卡法師 著   伍煥炤 譯 :《吃肉還是不吃肉:佛教的反思》

第三章  動機和肉類

3.  (3) 第三個原因是對別人的愛心和關懷。我避免傷害或殺害別人,因為我關心他們的福祉。我不盜取他們的東西,因為我尊重他們的財產。我不對他們進行性剝削或虐待,因為我尊重他們的尊嚴和選擇的權利。我不對他們撒謊,因為我尊重他們獲取和知道事實的權利。我不會使自己喝醉,因為我希望在與他們接觸時彼此能進行有意義的溝通。簡單而言,忠於五戒就好像愛這種行為,不僅要對與我直接有關的人,還包括廣大的人們。

* 歡迎轉載,但請註明出處和不改動譯文內容。

2011年4月13日星期三

第三章 動機和肉類 2

Shravasti Dhammika, To EAT OR NOT TO EAT MEAT: A BUDDHIST REFLECTION

Chapter 3 Motivation and meat

2. The Buddha gave three reasons why we should take ethical discipline seriously:

(1) The first is to avoid the negative effects of bad actions – usually called ‘bad kamma’ but more correctly ‘bad vipaka’. This is mentioned by the Buddha many times and is the only one of the three that is ever mentioned in traditional Theravada teaching, giving rise, with some justification, to the criticism that Theravada is selfish.

(2) The second reason is because following the Precepts lays the foundation for positive qualities like restraint, awareness, mental clarity, the happiness of having a clear conscience (anavajja sukha, Digha Nikaya I,70), etc. and which in time lead to the ultimate good, Nirvana.

達爾卡法師 著   伍煥炤 譯 :《吃肉還是不吃肉:佛教的反思》

第三章  動機和肉類

2. 佛陀提出三個原因,解釋為甚麼我們要認真看待道德戒律:

(1) 首先是避免惡行的影響 — 通常稱為「惡業」,但正確一點應是「惡果報」(Vipāka)。佛陀曾多次提及這點。它是三個提到的上座部傳統教義當中,唯一有些理由導致上座部佛教被批評為自私的教義。

(2) 第二個原因是五戒為良好的品德奠下基礎,例如克己、覺悟力、頭腦清晰和戒除惡業的快樂 (anavajja sukha, 《長部》I, 70) 等,它日後能帶來終極的快樂 — 涅槃。

* 歡迎轉載,但請註明出處和不改動譯文內容。

2011年4月11日星期一

第三章 動機和肉類 1

Shravasti Dhammika, To EAT OR NOT TO EAT MEAT: A BUDDHIST REFLECTION

Chapter 3 Motivation and meat

1. Being true to the Dhamma in general and the first Precept in particular, would seem to require being vegetarian. Not everyone sees it this way and most Theravadin and nearly all Vajrayanist Buddhists do not interpret it as being so. We will now examine the motives in practising the Precepts and see how this could be relevant to the meat eating-vegetarian issue.

達爾卡法師 著   伍煥炤 譯 :《吃肉還是不吃肉:佛教的反思》

第三章  動機和肉類

1. 通常遵從佛法,而特別是不殺戒似乎要吃素。然而,不是所有人都同意這觀點,大多數的上座部和幾乎所有的金剛乘佛教徒都不是這樣解釋不殺戒。我們會研究奉行五戒的動機,找出它與葷素的問題如何相關。

* 歡迎轉載,但請註明出處和不改動譯文內容。

Ajahn Brahm: What Happens After You Die?

2011年4月7日星期四

第二章 佛教支持素食主義的論據 13

Shravasti Dhammika, To EAT OR NOT TO EAT MEAT: A BUDDHIST REFLECTION

Chapter 2   Buddhist arguments for vegetarianism

13. (F) In a very important discourse in the Anguttara Nikaya the Buddha praises those who care about others as much as they care about themselves. He says, “There are these four types of people found in the world. What four? He who is concerned with neither his own good nor the good of others, he who is concerned with the good of others but not his own, he who is concerned with his own good but not the good of others and he who is concerned with both his own good and the good of others - and of these four he who is concerned with his own good and the good of others is the chief, the best, the topmost, the highest, the supreme.” (A.II, 94). And a little further along the Buddha asks the question, “And how is one concerned with both his own good and the good of others?” In part of the answer to this question he answers, ‘He does not kill or encourage others to kill.” (A.II, 99). We saw before that there is a casual link between killing animals and purchasing their meat. Quite simply, slaughter houses would not slaughter animals and butchers and supermarkets would not stock meat if people did not buy it. Therefore, when we purchase meat or even eat it when it is served to us, we are encouraging killing, and thus not acting out of concern for others, as the Buddha asked us to do.

The conclusions of all this seems to me to be inescapable – that intelligent, mature Dhamma practice would require vegetarianism, or at least reducing one’s meat consumption.

達爾卡法師 著   伍煥炤 譯 :《吃肉還是不吃肉:佛教的反思》

第二章 佛教支持素食主義的論據

13. (六) 在《增支部》一篇非常重要的經文中,佛陀稱讚那些關懷別人如關懷自己般的人,他說:「世上有四類人。哪四類?那些不關心自己和別人利益的人、那些關心別人利益而沒有關心自己利益的人、那些關心自己利益而沒有關心別人利益的人,以及那些關心自己和別人利益的人 — 在這四類人當中,那些關心自己和別人利益的人是最重要、最優越、最好、最高尚和無可比擬。」(《增支部 II, 94》)。佛陀再進一步問:「一個人怎樣關心自己和別人的利益?」在部份答案中,他答道:「他不殺生或鼓勵別人殺生。」(《增支部》II, 99)。我們早前看到屠宰牲畜和購買肉類之間存有因果關係。簡單來說,假如人們不購買,屠宰場不會屠宰動物,屠夫和超級市場不會出售肉類。因此,當我們購買肉類,甚至進食肉類的時候,我們正在鼓勵殺生。我們所做的行為沒有關顧別人,這是違背佛陀的吩咐。

就有關這點的結論,我看來不可避免的是 — 聰明和慎重的佛法修習應包括素食主義,或至少減低個人的食肉量。

* 歡迎轉載,但請註明出處和不改動譯文內容。

2011年4月4日星期一

第二章 佛教支持素食主義的論據 12

Shravasti Dhammika, To EAT OR NOT TO EAT MEAT: A BUDDHIST REFLECTION

Chapter 2   Buddhist arguments for vegetarianism

12.  (E) Even if their role in the death of a creature is only indirect and distant, genuine metta would urge one not to be involved in killing even to that extent. The Buddha said, “Just as a mother would protect her only child at the risk of her own life, like this one should develop an unbounded mind towards all beings and love to all the world. One should develop an unbounded mind, above, below and across, without obstruction…” (Sutta Nipata 149-50). He also said we should think like this, “I have love for footless creatures. I have love for the two-footed. I have love for the four-footed and I have love for many-footed creatures.” (Anguttara Nikaya II, 72). Saying “It wasn’t killed specifically for me and while I ate it my mind was filled with love” does not sound like the deep, kindly and pervasive love the Buddha asked us to develop. Rather, it sounds like a love restricted by rather narrow concerns.

達爾卡法師 著   伍煥炤 譯 :《吃肉還是不吃肉:佛教的反思》

第二章 佛教支持素食主義的論據

12.  (五) 即使他們只是間接或隱約地導致一個眾生死亡,真正的慈心 (metta) 會促使人不牽涉入殺生的行為,姑且是以上的情況。佛陀說:「正如一位母親會不顧自己的生命來保護她唯一的孩子,人同樣應培育對眾生和世界無量的慈心。人應培育對十方世界,上、下、左右,不受阻擾的無量慈心。」(《經集》 149-50)。他說我們應該這樣想:「我對無足的眾生有愛,我們兩足的眾生有愛,我們四足的眾生有愛,以及我們多足的眾生有愛。」(《增支部》II, 72)。「牠不是特別為我而屠宰的,進食時我的心中充滿了愛心」這樣的說話,並不像佛陀教我們培育的深切、善良和無邊的愛心。相反,這種愛心好像被非常狹隘的考慮所局限。

* 歡迎轉載,但請註明出處和不改動譯文內容。