2011年9月26日星期一

Footprints In The Dust II (塵土上的足跡)

Shravasti Dhammika, Footprints In The Dust II

達爾卡法師 著 伍煥炤 譯 :〈塵土上的足跡〉II

1. The Buddha was not, as is commonly supposed, primarily a forest dweller. Of the four monasteries he founded and now identified by archaeologists - Ghositarama, Jivakarama, Jetavana and Veluvana - the first is actually inside the walls of the city while the other three are within easy walking distance of their respective cities. When staying in these places the Buddha’s accommodation would have been reasonably comfortable but when he was on the road the situation was very different and he would have to sleep in or take shelter in whatever was available. We read of him sleeping in a potter’s shed on grass spread on the floor (M.I:502). On another occasion, he arrived in Kapilavatthu and finding no proper lodgings, spent the night in Bharandu’s hermitage sleeping on a mat on the ground (A.I:277). Often he must have simply slept in one of the many mango groves that to this day are still to be seen near most north Indian villages. Finding him out in the open one winter’s night Hattaka asked the Buddha if he was happy. He replied; ‘Yes my lad, I live happily. Of those who live happily in the world I am one’. Hattaka expressed surprise at this, pointing out that it was the dark half of the month, the time of frost, that the ground was trampled hard by the hoofs of the cattle, the carpet of leaves thin, the wind cold and that the Buddha’s robe appeared to be thin. The Buddha reaffirmed that he was nonetheless happy (A.I:136).

1. 與普遍的想法不同,佛陀並不是一個主要以森林為居所的人。現今四所由考古學家確認的寺院 — 瞿師羅園 (Ghositarama)、耆婆園 (Jivakarama)、祇園精舍 (Jetavana) 和竹林精舍 (Veluvana) — 第一所其實位於城內,而其餘三所則離城市步行不遠之處。當逗留在這些地方時,佛陀的起居是頗為舒適的,但當他展開行程時,情況就十分不同,他要四處找尋任何可供留宿的地方。我們知道他住在製陶工人的棚屋,睡在鋪上草的地上 (M. I: 502)。另一次,他到了迦毗羅衛國 (Kapilavatthu),發覺找不到適當的住處,於是在巴哈蘭度的草庵 (Bharandu) 內度宿,睡在地蓆上 (A. I: 277)。很多時他乾脆睡在一個芒果園。時至今日,在大多數印度北部的村落附近仍可找到這些芒果園。哈達卡 (Hattaka) 看到佛陀在冬天時睡在曠野,便問他是否快樂?他回答:「是的年青人,我生活得很快樂。在世上能活得快樂的人之中,我是其中的一位。」哈達卡對此感到驚訝,指出這是黑暗的日子、正值結霜、地面被牛腳踐踏得乾硬、樹葉製的毯子單薄、寒風凜冽,而佛陀只有薄薄的外袍。佛陀重申他仍然感到快樂 (A. I: 136)。

2. The Buddha must have also enjoyed the freedom his life of wandering gave him. For him ‘the household life is full of hindrances, a path of dust. Free as the wind is the life of one who renounces all worldly things’ (D. I:62). However, moving from place to place had very important practical reasons behind it too, in a world without the communications that we take for granted it allowed him to spread his teachings far and wide. He was also aware that some personal contact with him was important, especially for newly ordained monks and nuns, and that this may have been a factor in determining in which districts he visited and how often (S,III:90). During his wanderings he might visit a district, teach, make some disciples, even ordain a few monks or nuns and then perhaps not come again for many years. If a monk from such a district wished to see him again he could simply set off to wherever the Buddha was staying at the time.

2. 佛陀定當享受遊方生活帶來的自由,對他來說「在家生活充滿羈絆,是一條暝曚的道路,捨棄世俗的事物就能如風一般自由」(D. I: 62)。然而,四處遊方的背後有很重要的原因,在缺乏通訊的時代,這能讓他把佛法廣泛地傳播開去。他亦意識到讓人們接觸自己的重要,特別是對於那些剛出家的比丘和比丘尼,這可能是決定了他到哪個地區和次數的因素 (S. III: 90)。在他遊方的時候,他可能到訪一個地方,在當地弘法,接受一些信眾皈依,甚至為一些比丘或比丘尼剃度,然後幾年也不再來。假如這些地方的比丘想再見佛陀,他只要前往佛陀當時所處的地方便可。

3. Sona Kutikanna was ordained by Mahakaccana and about a year later developed the desire to meet the man whose teachings he had committed himself to. He said to his preceptor; ‘I have not yet met the Lord face to face, I have only heard about what he is like. If you give me permission I will travel to see the Lord, the Noble One, the Enlightened Buddha’(Ud,58). For lay disciples with domestic obligations undertaking a long journey to see the Buddha would have been more difficult and so they may have had to wait, perhaps many years, before they got to see him again. The Thapataya Sutta gives us some idea of the excitement caused in an outlying district when its inhabitants heard that the Buddha might be on his way to see him and how the excitement increased as word of his gradual approach reached them (S,V:348-349). Elsewhere we read of people’s anxiousness for news about the Buddha and of what he had been teaching.

3. 二十億耳 (Sona Kutikanna) 是摩訶迦旃延 (Mahakaccana) 剃度的比丘。在出家大約一年後,二十億耳有一個願望,想見到那個他皈依其教義的人。他對戒師說:「我還未能與世尊見面,我只聽過他的容貌,假如你准許的話,我會前往見世尊、聖者、正等正覺者」(Ud. 58)。對擁有家庭責任的在家弟子,要長途跋涉去見佛陀會更加困難,因此他們可能要等很多年才可再與佛陀見面。《塔帕塔雅經》(Thapataya Sutta) 告訴我們,當一處邊陲地區的居民聽到佛陀可能正前往當地,有關他快將到達的消息傳至時,他們的情緒高漲也高漲起來 (S.V: 348-349)。其他地方提到人們着緊有關佛陀的消息,以及他正在講授的佛法。

4. Once a monk who had spent the rainy season with the Buddha in Savatthi arrived in Kapilavatthu. When people heard where the monk had come from he found himself deluged with questions about the Buddha (S,V:450). On another occasion a group of brahmins from Kosala and Magadha who had arrived in Vesali, heard that the Buddha just happened to be in town and decided that the opportunity to meet him was one that was too good to miss. The Buddha had apparently given his attendant instructions that he was not to be disturbed while the brahmins were adamant that they would not leave until they got to see the famous teacher.

4. 有一次,一位比丘與佛陀在舍衛城 (Savatthi) 度過雨季。當這比丘到了迦毗羅衛國 (Kapilavatthu),人知知道他從哪處來後,便接二連三詢問他關於佛陀的消息 (S.V: 450)。在另一次,一班憍薩羅國 (Kosala) 和摩揭陀國 (Magadha) 的婆羅門來到毘舍離 (Vesali),聽到佛陀剛巧在城中,認為是與佛陀見面千載難逢的機會。雖然佛陀明確指示侍者不要讓人打擾自己,但這些婆羅門卻堅持要見到佛陀才肯離開。

5. Seeing this impasse, the novice Siha asked the attendant to tell the Buddha that there were three people waiting to see him. The attendant said he would not do this but he wouldn’t object if Siha did. This was done, the Buddha asked Siha to put a mat outside his residence in the shade for him to sit on while he talked to the brahmins (D. I: 151). But the Buddha couldn’t be everywhere at once and so monks and nuns would often take long journeys for the privilege of spending some time in his presence. For example once while he was residing in Catuma at least five hundred monks arrived to see him (M,I: 456).

5. 沙彌司哈 (Siha) 看到情況僵持不下,便請侍者轉告佛陀有三個人正等待與他見面。該名侍者說不會這樣做,但亦不會反對司哈自行告訴佛陀。佛陀從司哈得知事情後,便吩咐他在樹蔭下擺放一張草蓆給自己坐,然後與婆羅門傾談起來 (D. I: 151)。佛陀不能同時間在所有的地方出現,因此比丘和比丘尼經常要攀山涉水爭取與他見面的機會。例如有一次他在車頭 (Catuma) 居住,就至少五百名比丘前往探望他 (M. I: 456)。

6. However, with him moving around a lot, it was not always possible to know where he was at any one time. In the beautiful Parayana Vagga of the Sutta Nipata we read of the sixteen disciples of the ascetic Bavari setting out for northern India in the hope of meeting the Buddha. First they heard that he was at Savatthi and ‘wearing matted hair and dressed in deer skin’ they headed there. They went through Kosambi and Saketa and arrived in Savatthi only to find that he had left some time previously. They followed his route through Setavya, Kapilavatthu, Kusinara, Pava and Vesali finally catching up with him at the Pasanaka Shrine, (Barabar Hills north of Gaya) ‘and like a thirsty man going for cool water, like merchants going for profit, like a heat exhausted man going for shade, they quickly ascended the mountain’ (Sn.1014).

6. 然而,佛陀經常四處遊方,不能清楚知道他某時候身處何方。我們在《經集》 (Sutta Nipata) 的〈彼岸道品〉 (Parayana Vagga) 讀到苦行者波婆梨 (Bavari) 的十六位弟子前往印度北部,希望能找到佛陀。最初他們聽到他在舍衛城 (Savatthi),是個「頭髮蓬鬆,身穿鹿皮」的人,他們便到了那處。他們經拘舍彌 (Kosambi) 和沙計多 (Saketa)到舍衛城,抵達時發現他已離開了一段時間。他們跟隨着他的行縱,經斯婆醯 (Setavya)、迦毗羅衛國 (Kapilavatthu)、拘尸那揭羅 (Kusinara)、巴婆 (Pava) 和毘舍離 (Vesali),最後在石寺 (Pasanaka Shrine) (位於伽耶以北的巴拉巴山Barabar Hills) 追上他,就像「口渴的人找尋冷水、商人追求利潤和被炎熱煎熬的人找尋陰涼處一樣,他們趕快登上山」(Sn.1014)。

7. There were undoubtedly as many languages and dialects spoken in the Buddha’s India as there are today and this would have created special problems for him. Theravada tradition asserts that the Buddha spoke Pali although there is no mention in the Tripitaka of what language he spoke. Like merchants, diplomats and others whose professions meant frequent travel in different regions it is very likely that apart from his mother tongue, which would have been a dialect of Kosala, he was probably fluent in several other languages as well.

7. 在佛陀的年代,印度毫無疑問有很多的語言和方言,情況就如現今一樣,這會對他造成特別的問題。雖然《大藏經》沒有提到佛陀所操的語言,但上座部的傳統聲稱佛陀是操巴利文的。佛陀如商人、外交官和其他要經常在各地穿梭的人,很可能除了他的母語 (應是憍薩羅語的一種方言),他或許還同時精於其他幾種語言。

8. In the Aranavibhanga Sutta he says that insisting on using one’s own dialect in an area where another is spoken can only cause confusion and conflict. ‘It has been said, “One should not stake too much on the local language...” How does one do this? In different regions they might call the same thing a pati, a patta, a vittha, a serava, a dharopa, a pona, a hana or a pisila (these are all different words for a bowl or dish). So whatever they call it in one region, one uses that word thinking, “It seems this person is referring to that object”, and one uses that word accordingly’ These are the words of someone familiar with a range of languages and dialects and who was very open and practical about language.

8. 他在《無諍分別經》(Aranavibhanga Sutta) 中指出,在異地堅持使用自己的語言只會導致混亂和衝突。「經文這樣說:『人不應過份注重自己的語言……』人怎樣做到這點?不同的地方人們可能稱同一樣東西為pati, patta, vittha, serava, dharopa, pona, hana或pisila (它們都解作碗或碟)。因此,無論人們在一處地方怎樣稱呼它,人在用這詞語時可這樣想:『這個人好像指這樣東西』,而他也要跟隨使用這詞語。」這說話是出自熟悉多種語言和方言,對語言持開放態度,以及從現實考慮語言問題的人。

9. The Buddha was equally open about regional customs as well. Once when he found some monks spending too much time bathing and playing in the water he made a rule that they should only bathe once a month. Later some monks who had been staying in an outlying region where people found their infrequent bathing revolting (not surprisingly) reported this to the Buddha and he allowed them to bathe more often to accord with the customs of that region. Once again this is the kind of thing one would expect of the urbane well-travelled individual. Whatever the Buddha was he was not parochial and no doubt his travels made him even more urbane and open-minded.

9. 佛陀對各地的習俗同樣持開明的態度。有一次,他發現一些比丘用了太多的時間在沐浴和玩水,他因而訂了一條戒律,規定他們只能一個月沐浴一次。後來,一些在邊陲地區居住比丘向佛陀報告,當地人討厭他們不常沐浴的習慣 (毫不奇怪)。佛陀於是准許他們多點沐浴,以跟隨該處地方的習俗。這樣的態度是一個溫文爾雅和的走南闖北的人應有的。無論佛陀怎樣,他都不是個眼光狹窄的人,毫無疑問遊方使他更為彬彬有禮和開通明達。

有關佛陀最後旅程的地圖可見:

For a map showing the Buddha’s last journey see

http://www.ancient-buddhist-texts.net/Maps/MP-index.htm

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