2011年11月28日星期一

The Buddhist Precepts I (〈佛教戒律 I〉)

Shravasti Dhammika, The Buddhist Precepts I

達爾卡法師 著   伍煥炤 譯 :〈佛教戒律 I〉

A precept (sikkhapada) is a self-imposed rule or discipline. The moral rules that all Buddhists commit themselves to and try to live by are called the five Precepts (panca sila). They are (1) not to harm living beings, (2) not to steal, (3) not to engage in wrong sexual behaviour, (4) not to lie and (5) not to take alcohol or other intoxicating drugs. In following these Precepts one gradually develops a respect for the life of others, for their property, their dignity, their right to know the truth and a respect for the clarity of one's own mind. The Buddha called adhering to these Precepts a consideration to others which ‘creates love and respect and which is conducive to helpfulness, non-dispute, harmony and unity’ (A.III, 287; M.I.322). I think this passage needs to be more well-known so I give it in Pali as well…

戒律 (sikkhapada) 是自我願意接受的規則或紀律,所有佛教徒承諾遵從和以此作為人之道的道德規範德稱為五戒 (panca sila),包括 (1) 不殺生、(2) 不偷盜、(3) 不邪淫、(4) 不妄語和 (5) 不飲酒或服用毒品。當人遵從這些戒律,人便會漸漸培養尊重別人生命、財產、尊嚴知道事實真相的權利,並着重個人頭腦的清晰。佛陀指堅持這些戒律是對別人的關懷,「能產生愛與尊重,有利於培育樂於助人、不爭、和諧與團結」(A.III, 287; M.I, 322)。我想這一段句子應讓更多人知道,因此,我會同時寫出它的巴利文:

piyakarana, garukarana, sangahaya, avivadaya, samaggiya, ekibhavaya, samvattanti.

The Buddha saw adherence to the Precepts as a gift (danani) which would benefit both the giver and the receiver. 'When a noble disciple practices the five Precepts he gives the gift of freedom from fear, from hatred and from ill-will to limitless beings. And in giving this gift he thereby partakes in a freedom from fear, from hatred and from ill-will which is limitless' (condensed, A.IV, 246). On another occasion, the Buddha called virtue 'freedom-giving' and 'conducive to concentration' (A.III,132) and he mentioned that one of the most important benefits of practicing the Precepts is that one experiences ‘the happiness of being blameless’ (anavajja sukha, D.I,70). In other words, Buddhists practices the five Precepts because they care about their own welfare and the welfare and happiness of others too.

佛陀認為遵守五戒是一種「布施」(danani),有益於贈予者和受領人。「當聖弟子踐行五戒,他就是向無限的眾生施予無懼、無瞋恚和無惡意的布施」(扼要:A.IV, 246)。在另一個場合,佛陀稱德行為「解脫束縛」和「有益於禪定」(A.III, 132),他提到踐行五戒其中一樣最重要的益處是讓人感到「戒除惡業的快樂」(anavajja sukha, D.I, 70)。換言之,佛教徒踐行五戒是因為他們關心自己福祉,以及別人的福祉和幸福。

Over the next week I am going to have comment on all the Five, Eight and Ten Precepts.

在往後的星期,我會討論一下五戒、八戒和十戒。

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